Acropolis

Acropolis na Athens

La Acropolis na Athens shine babban gunki na babban birnin Girka kuma alama ce ta ɗaukaka da ikon tsohuwar wayewar Girka. Babu wani ɗan yawon shakatawa da zai wuce ta wannan wurin ba tare da ya ziyarci wannan wuri ba.

A zahiri, wasu biranen Girka da yawa suna da nasu yankin, kalma da ake amfani da ita don ayyana ɓangaren babba na polis. Musamman, na Athens yana hawa mita 156 sama da matakin teku kuma ana iya samunsa ne kawai a ɗayan ɓangarorinsa, inda ragowar cloungiyoyin cyclopean Dating daga lokaci mycenaean.

Girman Athenian Acropolis ya fara ne a cikin karni na XNUMX BC, lokacin da wadata ke ci gaba Atenas ya fara gina haikalin da aka keɓe wa Athena da wasu alloli a kan wannan "dutsen mai tsarki."

El Hanna, da Erechtheum da sauran abubuwan al'ajabi na zamanin gargajiya mutanen Farisa sun lalata su a 480 BC Bayan nasarar Girka a cikin Yaƙe-yaƙe na Likita an sake gina gine-ginen kuma an yi shingen da bango.

Bugu da kari, an haƙa manyan ramuka a ciki don binne gumakan gumakan (waɗanda aka ɗauka masu tsarki) waɗanda suka faɗa cikin halaka. Yau da yawa daga cikin waɗannan mutummutumai ana iya sha'awar su a cikin Gidan Tarihi na Acropolis, ziyarar da aka ba da shawara ga masoyan kayan tarihi.

The Propylaea, ƙofofin Acropolis

Bayan hawa tsaunin, baƙi suna shiga cikin shingen ta hanyar gangaren yamma, suna ƙetarewa Propylaea, ƙofofin Acropolis. An gina wannan tsarin a cikin 437 BC ta amfani marmara daga ma'adinan Pentelic, a bayan gari. Ya ƙunshi manyan mutane masu murabba'i biyu waɗanda suka tsara ƙofar farfajiyar.

Ya wuce Propylaea, matakalar dutse ta kai ga Haikalin Athena Victoria, wanda har yanzu yana adana ginshiƙanta na ion da ɓangaren tsarinta. A zamanin da ana ajiye shi a ciki mutum-mutumi na aljanna mai fuka-fukai Athena, mai kare birni, wanda aka yanki fukafukinsa a alamance ta yadda zai kasance koyaushe yana kare Atinawa.

Har ila yau a nan shi ne Haikalin Artemis Brauronia, wanda a yau 'yan tsiraru kawai suka rage.

Kodayake a yau yana ba da tsiraici, a zamaninsa ma akwai kurmi mai tsarki ketare ta hanyar da ake kira Via Sacra.

Parthenon

Parthenon na Atina

Babban daren dare game da Acropolis tare da haskaka silhouette mai haske na Parthenon.

Babban kayan ado na Acropolis shine haikalin da aka keɓe ga allahiya Athens Parthenos (Virgin Athena), wanda aka fi sani da "da Parthenon".

An gina shi a cikin salo da kuma bin canon na gargajiya rabbai: ginshiƙai takwas a kan kunkuntar gefe da 17 a faɗi; Kowane shafi yana da tsayin mita 10,43, wato, ya ninka diamita daga tushe sau 5,5. Abubuwan ado na waje na frieze za a iya sha'awar yau a cikin Gidan kayan gargajiya na Burtaniya london. A cikin bayanan su sun wakilta tsakanin sauran abubuwa Yanayin Yaƙin Trojan da jerin gwano na Panthenaic.

A cikin Parthenon har yanzu ana iya ganin dutsen da aka kafa gunkin Athena na almara, tsayin mita goma, wanda aka sassaka Phidias cikin zinariya da hauren giwa.

Erechtheum

Ereyatte caryatids

Shahararren caryatids na Erechtheion, akan Acropolis na Athens.

Gini ne mafi asali akan Acropolis. An gina su a kan ƙasa mara daidaituwa, ba ta da kyau kuma a ɗayan ɓangarorinta ya maye gurbin ginshiƙai masu shahara tare da sanannun caryatids. Wadannan siffofin mata an sanya musu suna ne bayan 'yan matan Spartan da Atinawa suka kama a matsayin bayi a lokacin Yaƙin Peloponnesia.

Al'adar Atheniya ta gargajiya sun bada umarnin hakan a cikin Erechtheum koyaushe zauna maciji mai rai, wanda ya wakilci ruhun jarumi Erechtheus. Idan wannan macijin ya mutu, dole ne nan da nan a maye gurbinsa da wani.

A zamanin Byzantine wannan haikalin ya canza zuwa coci; daga baya, a karkashin mulkin Ottoman, ya zama masallaci na farko sannan kuma gidan sarauta na Pasha.

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Dionysus

gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girkanci athens

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Dionysus

Wannan haikalin, wanda aka gina a dutse a cikin 340 BC, babban misali ne na gargajiya gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girkanci. da Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na DionysusAn lasafta shi bayan bautar allahn giya, yana a ƙarshen kudu maso gabashin Acropolis kuma a lokacin yana da damar karɓar bakuncin 'yan kallo 17.000.

Kusa da shi akwai ragowar wani tsarin da aka sani da Odeon na Pericles, sadaukar don karɓar shirye-shiryen kiɗa.

Sauran tsarin Acropolis na Athens

Da yawa daga cikin gine-ginen da suka tsaya akan Acropolis a lokacin samartakarsa, babu kusan sauran ganuwa a yau. Koyaya, a cikin Acropolis Museum zaka iya ganin haifuwa masu aminci da bayanin ma'anar su da ayyukansu. Waɗannan su ne mafi mahimmanci:

  • El Sabuntawa, wani gini ne dake arewacin Acropolis inda yan matan da ke kula da su, tare da wasu abubuwa, na kula da mutum-mutumin Athena suke.
  • El Eleusinionion, Haikalin da aka gina ta oda na Pericles don sujada ga asirin Eleusis.
  • El Asclepeion, an tsarkake haikalin ga allahn magani wanda marasa lafiya da firistoci ke halarta.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Luciana m

    Me jarumawan suke ci a Atina? Me jarumawan suke yi lokacin da suke ɗan adam kawai? Waɗanne tufafi ne na zamani?

  2.   abubuwan ban mamaki m

    A Athens suna cin gyros abinci mai kyau wanda nake ba da shawara daga gogewa kuma kyakkyawan abinci irin su kalamaki naman skewers

  3.   Luis m

    menene ciyawa akropolis
    na !! …… puxa tuna ni da mahaukatan zodiac