Al'adar prehispanic

Al'adar prehispanic

Daruruwan al'adun prehispanic kuma wayewar kai na wayewa da dama sun bunkasa a cikin yankin Amurka. Da alama akwai wata yarjejeniya cewa al'adun gargajiyar da aka yi la'akari da su sun fara a Mesoamerica da Andes, su ne Anasazi, Mexica, Tolteca, Teotihuacana, Zapoteca, Olmeca, Maya, Muisca, Cañaris, Moche, Nazca, Chimú, Inca da Tiahuanaco da sauransu..

Dukansu al'ummomi ne masu tsari mai rikitarwa na siyasa da zamantakewar al'umma kuma daga cikinsu mun bar fayiloli na al'adunsu na fasaha da imaninsu na addini. A sauran nahiyoyin, cigaban zamantakewar da al'adu ya kasance kamar yadda mahimmanci da mahimman batutuwan kamar kula da muhalli ko al'ummomin dimokiradiyya na tsarin mulki na farko. Ee, yayin da kake karanta shi, dimokiradiyya ta wanzu fiye da Athens.

Wasu daga abubuwan kirkire-kirkire ko abubuwan al'adu wadanda suma suka inganta a ɗaya gefen hawan da kuma tekun Atlantika sune kalandar, tsarin inganta kwayar halittar masara da dankali, gine-ginen anti-seismic, tsarin ban ruwa, rubutu, ingantaccen ƙarfe da kayan masaku. Hakanan wayewar pre-Columbian sun san dabaran, amma ba su da amfani sosai, saboda jin yaren ƙasar da kuma gandun dajin da suka zauna, amma ana amfani da shi don yin kayan wasa.

Gabaɗaya, suna da babban ci gaba a ginin temples da wuraren tarihi, don kasancewa misalai bayyanannu sanannun wuraren tarihi na Caral, Chavín, Moche, Pachacámac, Tiahuanaco, Cuzco, Machu Picchu da Nazca, a cikin Central Andes ; da Teotihuacan, Magajin Garin Templo, Tajín, Palenque, Tulum, Tikal, Chichén-Itzá, Monte Albán, a cikin Mesoamerica.

Kuma bayan waɗannan bayanan na gaba ɗaya na ci gaba da yin cikakken bayani game da wasu al'adun gargajiya masu mahimmanci.

Amurka kafin Turawa, al'adun pre-Hispanic

Lokacin da muke tunanin pre-Columbian ko pre-Hispanic America, kalmomi biyu da muke amfani dasu azaman kamanceceniya, amma duk da haka muna da halayensu, kusan koyaushe muna zuwa Inca Empire, Mayas da Aztec, duk da haka a baya (ko a baya, ya dogara da kallo) na waɗannan mahimman al'adun akwai ƙari.

Kamar yadda zaku iya tunani Lokacin mulkin mallaka kafin Amurka ya fara ne tun daga zuwan mutane na farko, daga Asiya ta hanyar Bering da Neolithic Revolution, zuwa isowa Columbus a 1492. Har ila yau, a cikin tunaninmu na yau da kullun muna tunanin Tsakiya da Kudancin Amurka, a zahiri kuma saboda al'ummomin da mutanen Arewacin Amurka sun kasance makiyaya ne.

Al'adun prehispanic na Colombia

Kafin zuwan Spaniards, yankin da ke yanzu Colombia, yana da yawan ɗumbin 'yan asalin ƙasar, kuma duk da cewa ba a san su kamar waɗanda ke zaune a wasu sassan Kudancin Amurka ko Amurka ta Tsakiya ba, suna da muhimmiyar ci gaba zuwa fasaha da al'adu.

Dangane da binciken da masana tarihi da yawa suka gudanar tsawon shekaru, an tabbatar da cewa manyan al'ummomin yare uku suna zaune a Colombia, Chibchas, Caribe da Arawak, wanda yawancin kabilu da ke da yarurruka daban-daban suka kasance.

Iyalan yaren Chibcha

Ya mamaye manyan yankunan gabashin Cordillera, da Bogotá savannah da gangaren wasu koguna na Gabas ta Gabas, waɗannan kabilun masu zuwa na wannan dangi ne: Arhuacos da Taironas (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta), Muiscas (Yankin tsakiyar Andean), Tunebos (Casanare), Andaquíes (Caquetá), Pastos da Quillacingas (yankin kudu), Guambianos da Paeces (Cauca).

La Iyali na harshen Caribbean

Ya fito daga arewacin Brazil, sun ratsa yankin Venezuela, Antilles, kuma daga can, suka isa bakin tekun Atlantika, daga inda suka koma zuwa wasu yankuna na ƙasar. Wadannan kabilun sun kasance daga wannan dangin: Turbacos, Calamares da Sinúes (Atlantic Coast), Quimbayas (Central Mountain Range), Pijaos (Tolima, Antiguo Caldas), Muzos da Panches (Lands of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca), Calimas (Valle del) Cauca), Motilones (Norte de Santander), Chocoes (Tekun Pacific).

Iyalin Yaren Arawak

Sun shiga Kolombiya ta cikin Kogin Orinoco kuma suna wurare da yawa na yankin. Tribesabilun da ke gaba sun kasance na wannan dangin: Guahíbos (Llanos Orientales), Wayus ko Guajiros (Guajira), Piapocos (Bajo Guaviare), Ticunas (Amazonas).

Al'adun prehispanic na Mexico

Maya

A lokacin da yake kan ganiyarsa, masarautar Mayan ta mamaye dukkanin Meso America. Sun zauna a cikin gandun daji na Guatemala, wani ɓangare na Yucatán, a cikin Meziko, yammacin Honduras da El Salvador. Lokaci ne tsakanin shekaru 300 zuwa 900 na zamaninmu wanda aka sansu da suna zamanin zamani, kuma ba zato ba tsammani, ɗaya daga cikin manyan asirai, a lokacin da ya kai kololuwa, sai suka ruguje suka ɓace, sabbin ra'ayoyi game da wannan suna magana ne game da cutar na ruwa a matsayin abin da ya haifar da faduwar rana.

Shekaru ɗari biyu bayan haka a cikin Chichén Itzá sun sake bayyana, amma sun riga sun kasance al'umma mafi rauni. Mayan sun kasance manyan masanan kimiyya da zane-zane, masu ƙwarewar fasahar saƙar auduga da zaren agave.

Gine-ginen sa ana daukar su mafi kamala a cikin sabuwar duniya, tare da kayan ado a cikin kayan taimako, zane-zane da buɗewa. Haka yake a rubuce rubuce wanda ya zarce duk wasu rubuce rubucen na Amurka. Daga cikin biranen Mesoamerican da yawa waɗanda suka kafa mafi mahimmancin kuma har yanzu Tikal tana nan a cikin dajin Guatemala da Chichén Itzá a Yucatán na Meziko.

Sauran manyan al'adun da muke gano ƙasar Amurka ta Tsakiya ita ce mutanen Aztec wadanda suka mamaye yankin tsakiya da kudanci na Mexico ta yanzu tsakanin ƙarni na XNUMX da XNUMX. Mutane ne waɗanda ta hanyar ƙawancen soja tare da wasu rukuni da jama'a suka sami saurin faɗaɗawa. Bayan mutuwar Moctezuma II a 1520, an bayyana raunin wannan babbar daula, wanda ya samo asali daga wannan saurin faɗaɗawa, wanda ya sauƙaƙe ga Mutanen Spain, ƙarƙashin jagorancin Hernán Cortés, don cinye wannan babbar daular. Ayyukan tattalin arziƙin wannan wayewar sune noma da kasuwanci.

Al'adun Prehispanic na Peru

Peru

Hawan Inas ya samo asali ne tun daga ƙarni na XNUMX, a ƙarshen, lokacin da wata karamar kabila ta zauna a kwarin Cuzco, Peru, kuma suka kafa babban birnin su. Daga nan ne suka mamaye sauran kabilun har sai sun zama babbar daula wacce har yanzu al'adun ta, tatsuniyoyin ta da hangen nesa na duniya suke a sauran mutanen nahiyar. Daya daga cikin abubuwan da suka ja hankalin Wannan daular ita ce an kafata cikin shekaru 50. Harshen hukuma shine Quechua. Kuma ayyukansu na tattalin arziki sun ta'allaka ne akan noma, farauta da kamun kifi, kasuwanci, da ma'adanai.
Kafin na karkare, Ina so in tunatar da ku cewa duk da cewa Incas, Mayas da Aztec sun kasance wayewar kan da ke da matukar amfani da muhimmanci, amma ba su kasance zamani daya ba yayin ci gaban su, kuma ba su kadai ba.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   lila bonilla m

    wannan matsakaiciyar matsakaiciya ce

  2.   JULIANA ANDREA ARBOLEDA LONDOÑO m

    YADDA KYAU KYAUTA KYAUTA SUKA CETO NI

  3.   kumares m

    uiiop`p` + `+ poliyuhu6yu6ytrftr

  4.   Eyim yolany m

    Na ɗan kusa kusa amma na gode
    Ina fatan wannan ya bazu ga wasu

  5.   leidy halin kirki m

    godiya kar a rasa zamantakewa

    1.    leidy halin kirki m

      da kwafa komai

  6.   Karen Tatiana m

    oh abin ban mamaki yana da kyau sosai har ya sanya ni son yin kururuwa hahahahahaha

  7.   Daniel Felipe Montero m

    Yana da kyau sosai wannan duk tarihin zamanin Colombia ne

  8.   Mauricio m

    Ina bukatan al'adun

  9.   Jeison 68 m

    kar a rubuta wani abu wanda ba gaske bane 'yan matan sun kasance daga Ajantina da Bolivia ba daga Colombia ba

  10.   yurani m

    To wannan ba kyau bane amma duk da haka malamin ya samu kyakkyawa a zamantakewa =)

  11.   Yahaya 33 m

    Meye ake kiran duk al'adun pre-Hispanic America

  12.   jeronimo m

    kyau sosai cece ni cewa dakatarwa