Harshen Girkanci na Mutum

afuwa

Duk da bambancin zamantakewar da ke akwai, Helenawa suna da asalin asali na mutum. Idan aka la'akari da duk wayewar da ta gabata kayan aiki ne na yardar gumaka ko sarakuna, ɗan adam a cikin falsafar Girka yana karɓar darajar mutum. Manufar ɗan ƙasa, a matsayin ɗan memba na polis, ba tare da la'akari da kasancewa ko a'a ga masu martaba ba, wanda ya kasance ɗayan mahimman gudummawar al'adun Girka. Da 'yan sanda Girkanci sun haɗa kai ko yaƙi da juna, amma mutanen Hellenic suna fahimtar asalin ƙasa ɗaya, a cikin haɗin abubuwa kamar Wasannin Olympic, addini, yare, da sauransu.

A karni na XNUMX kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa, mafi yawan biranen birni sun shiga rikici, duka saboda koma bayan karfin masarautu, da kuma karancin kasashe masu ni'ima, da karuwar jama'a, wanda ya haifar da tashin hankali na zamantakewar jama'a. Rikicin ya sa Helenawa sun mallake Bahar Rum, hakan ya haifar da kasuwanci sosai kuma ya faɗaɗa amfani da Girkanci a matsayin harshen kasuwanci.

Wajen 760 BC, Helenawa sun kafa yankuna a kudancin Italiya, a Naples da Sicily. Wanda Phoenicians da Etruscans suka hana, basu taɓa iya mamaye duk waɗannan ƙasashen ba, amma tasirin al'adunsu ya nuna babbar canjin al'umman yankin Italia.

Bayan mulkin mallaka, tsarin zamantakewar polis ya canza. Chanan kasuwar da suka haɓaka, saboda faɗaɗa teku, ba sa son ci gaba da barin gwamnati a hannun masu martaba kuma tare da sauran manoman da suka matsa lamba don shiga cikin yanke shawara. Athens, ɗayan ɗayan biranen da suka fi ci gaba a zirin teku, sannan ta fara aiwatar da sauye-sauyen siyasa, tsakanin ƙarni na XNUMX da na XNUMX BC, zuwa ci gaban dimokiradiyya na tsarin gwamnatinta.

A cikin 594 BC wani mai kawo canji mai suna Solon sun ɗauki matakin farko a wannan ma'anar, ta hanyar shigar da rubutacciyar doka, kotun adalci da taron mutane 400, wakilai waɗanda aka zaɓa gwargwadon dukiyar su, masu kula da yin doka a cikin al'amuran gari.


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