Tsoffin gidajen kallo na Girka

Girkanci-sinimomi

Daya daga cikin gudummawar da yawa na Girgizan tsohuwar zuwa wayewar yamma shine Gidan wasan kwaikwayo. Yau za mu gani yaya tsoffin gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Girka, wuraren da aka gabatar da masifu da raha, dandalin raye-raye da al'adun addini. Duk garuruwan Girka suna da gidan wasan kwaikwayo, tunda wannan shine babban fili don nishaɗi da hallara ga thean ƙasa na kowane irin zagi.

Filin wasan kwaikwayo na Girka na farko sun kasance kusa da gidajen ibada, tunda da farko anyi amfani dasu wajen yin bukukuwan addini. Tsarin dadadden tsari ya kasance mai sauqi qwarai, kodayake tare da lokaci aka bunkasa su har suka kai ga matsayin da muka sani a yau.

Lokaci ne na gargajiya, tsakanin ƙarni na XNUMX da na XNUMX BC, lokacin da gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girka ya sami ingantaccen tsari. Tare da siffar zagaye zagaye na jini, buɗewa zuwa sama kuma koyaushe yana cikin wurare masu sarari da yawa. Influaruwar yawan jama'a da aka tilasta wa ginin masu launin fata da sauran ƙarin gine-gine.

Akwai muhimmi bambanci tsakanin gidajen siliman Girkanci da na Roman. An gina ƙarshen a kan ƙasa kuma an gina matakan su ta hanyar rumbuna da bakuna. Gidan sinima na Girka, a gefe guda, an fi dacewa da yanayin cikin yanayin. An gina su ta amfani da filin, misali a kan gangaren tsauni. Bayan haka kuma, an gina tudun ƙasa musamman don saita matakai akan su.

Ya kasance a cikin waɗannan wurare masu ban sha'awa cewa tsoffin Girkawa sun sami damar jin daɗin masifu a karo na farko. Aeschylus, Sophocles da Euripides, kodayake kuma na rashin girmamawa na comedies na Aristophanes.

Acoustics

Ofayan halaye mafi ban mamaki na gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girka shine da ban mamaki acoustics. Wannan yana faɗi abubuwa da yawa game da waɗanda suka tsara kuma suka gina waɗannan shinge, suna amfani da ingantaccen ilimin fasaha na zamani don lokacin su.

Manyan gidajen sinima na iya daukar 'yan kallo 18.000. Saboda dalilai na sarari, da yawa daga cikinsu an tilasta su mamaye wurare nesa da wurin. Amma duk da haka muryoyin 'yan wasan, kiɗa da waƙoƙin mawaƙa sun isa gare su da cikakken tsabta.

Girkanci gidan wasan kwaikwayo sauti

An tsara tsoffin gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Girka da kulawa ta musamman acoustics

Misali mafi sani na wannan ana samunsa a cikin Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Epidaurus (a cikin hoton da ke jagorantar gidan), wanda ke kusa da kilomita 70 kudu da shi Atenas. A wajen al'ada al'ada ce ta ba wa baƙi mamaki ta hanyar nuna hanya mai sauƙi: ana gayyatar su su zauna a wuraren da suka fi nisa daga tsaye kuma su yi shiru. Na gaba, a kan dutsen dutse na mataki (sannu) tsabar tsabar kudi, sautinta ya faɗi daidai kunnen duk masu kallo, duk inda suke zaune.

Nazarin kwanan nan akan acoustics ya nuna cewa mabuɗin ba wai kawai a cikin ƙirar nasara ta shinge ba, har ma a cikin dutsen farar ƙasa na kujerun kujerun, wanda ke iya ɗaukar raƙuman sauti a ƙasa da 500 Hz.

Tsari da sassan sinimomin Girka

Gidajen wasan Girka sun kasance da manyan abubuwa uku: koilon, ƙungiyar makaɗa y sannu, ban da jerin abubuwan taimako.

sassan gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girkanci

Tsarin gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girka

Kolon

Kewayen zagaye ne wanda matakai, inda masu sauraro suka zauna. A zamanin da aka kira shi saunawa, kalma daga wacce kalmar yanzu "gidan wasan kwaikwayo" ta samo asali. Kamar gidajen kallo da filayen wasa na yau, an raba shi zuwa sassan da aka raba ta hanyar farfajiyoyi.

A zamanin farko mutane suna zaune kai tsaye a ƙasa. Daga baya, an gina kujerun dutse kuma, don layuka na farko, kujerun katako sun fi sauƙi.

Orchestra

Sarari inda Coro da kuma rawa. A gaskiya, a kusa da ƙungiyar makaɗa sauran tsarin an haifeshi. A farkon zamanin karami bagade don yin hadayaga alloli kafin aikin.

Gabaɗaya, da ƙungiyar makaɗa Ina da madauwari siffar kuma ta ɗan bango ne ya raba shi daga matattakan.

Skene

La sannu (scene), inda 'yan wasan kwaikwayo, an sanya shi cikin tsari lokacin da aka fara wakiltar ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo na farko. Yanayinta ya kasance kunkuntar kuma mai tsayi, yawanci yakan tashi dangane da ƙungiyar makaɗa, domin ya zama abin bayyane ga dukkan jama'a.

Yawancin silima suna da tsari a bayan sannu kira paraskenia. Sama da ita ya shimfida pinakes, ado na wucin gadi don wakiltar yanayi daban-daban, kamar yadda ake yi a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na yau.

Sauran abubuwan wasan kwaikwayo na Girka

Baya ga waɗannan sassa na tsari, gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Girka na iya samun wasu ƙananan abubuwa ko ƙarin abubuwa kamar waɗannan masu zuwa:

  • Diazome: Babban hanyar da ta raba wuraren tsaye a tsayi kuma ta bawa 'yan kallo damar shiga wuraren zama.
  • Tsoma baki: sarari a bayan Skené, galibi ana ɓoye shi daga idanun mai kallo. 'Yan wasan kwaikwayo sun yi amfani da shi don canza tufafi.
  • parodoi: farfajiyoyin da yan wasan suka shiga wurin.
  • Proskenion: sarari da ke gaban Skené, an yi masa ado da mutummutumai da shuke-shuke.

Mafi kyawun gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Girka

Shin har yanzu akwai wasu tsoffin gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Girka da za mu iya burge su kuma mu yi nazarin su? Abin farin ciki, ee, kodayake da yawa suma sun ɓace. Waɗannan su ne mafi kyawun kiyayewa:

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Epidaurus

Aka ambata a sama kuma an lura da ita wasan kwaikwayo, gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Epidaurus mai yiwuwa shine sanannen sanannen gidan wasan kwaikwayon Girkanci wanda aka sani. Tana can arewa maso gabas na Peloponnese Peninsula a Girka kuma an gina ta a ƙarni na 14.000 kafin haihuwar Yesu. C. Tana iya ɗaukar 'yan kallo 1988. Ya kasance wani ɓangare na Tarihin Duniya tun daga XNUMX.

gidan wasan kwaikwayo na tsohuwar Girkanci a delphi

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo Delphi

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo Delphi

Kusa da alaƙa da bautar allahn Apollo kuma zuwa Oracle na Delphi. Wannan gidan wasan kwaikwayon mai kujeru 5.000 mai ban sha'awa ya ba wa masu kallonsa kyakkyawar kallon hoto game da Yankin Cirra. Baya ga wasannin kwaikwayo, ta kuma shirya wasu shirye-shirye da shagulgulan da suka shafi Wasannin Pythian.

gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Girka a Athens

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Dionysus, a Athens

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Dionysus a Athens

El Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Dionysus yana kan gangaren kudu maso yamma na Atheniyan AcropolisWannan shine mafi girman gidan wasan kwaikwayo a duniyar Girka, tare da damar kusan 'yan kallo 18.000. Kamar yadda sunansa ya nuna, an tashe shi don ba da raye-raye da wasanni don girmama allahn Dionysus. Da kolon da kuma ƙungiyar makaɗa Ba a daɗe da gyara su ba, amma asalin tsarinsu yana nan yadda yake.


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