Kaum xyoo ntawm kev kos duab hauv Prague

Yog ib lub nroog uas zoo nkauj tshaj plaws nyob hauv Europe Prague, peev ntawm Czech koom pheejCov. Nws yog lub nroog uas muaj keeb kwm zoo heev vim qee qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv Tebchaws Europe tau muaj lawv tshooj nyob ntawm no.

Cov keeb kwm ntawd yog dab tsi tau ua kom tau nws nrog qhov keeb kwm tshwj xeeb hauv nroog loj. Ntau pua pua xyoo ntawm kos duab Lawv tuaj yeem pom ntawm txoj kev ntawm Prague thiab peb yuav tham txog qhov ntawd hauv tsab xov xwm niaj hnub no.

Prague, lub nroog

Cov Celts yog thawj cov neeg los txiav txim ntawm no nyob rau hauv txoj kev ruaj khov, tom qab ntawd cov neeg German thiab Slavs tuaj txog. Prague tau tsim tsa hauv lub xyoo pua qhia. Cov vajntxwv Bohemia ua Prague lub rooj zaum ntawm lawv cov tseemfwv thiab ntau yam ntawm cov neeg muaj hwjchim no yog thaum kawg Roman Emperors.

Prague loj heev nyob rau tiam XNUMX no thaum huab tais Charles IV nthuav lub nroog nrog cov tsev tshiab nyob rau ob sab ntawm Vltava, kuj koom nrog lawv nrog kev tsim kho tus choj. Los ntawm XNUMXth caug xyoo Bohemia dhau mus rau hauv lub tes ntawm Habsburgs thiab yog li Prague tau los ua tebchaws Austrian.

Tom qab 30 Xyoo 'Tsov Rog, lub nroog txuas ntxiv nws txoj kev lag luam kev nce qib thiab qhov ntawd bonanza tau txhais mus rau hauv kev hloov pauv hauv architectural. Tom qab ntawd ob lub ntiaj teb ua tsov ua rog yuav tuaj thiab Czechoslovakia, hauv qab kheej kheej kheej. Thaum kawg, nyob rau hauv 1989 Prague hais tias goodbye rau socialism, yog qhov chaw ntawm lub npe Velvet Revolution.

Czechoslovakia ploj ntawm daim duab qhia thiab ob lub tebchaws tau yug los: lub koom pheej Czech thiab Slovakia. Prague tau lub peev ntawm lub qub neej txij li thaum.

Architecture hauv Prague

Nrog rau qhov no npaum li cas ntawm ib-paus xyoo ntawm lub neej qhov tseeb yog tias Prague muaj cov duab zoo nkauj thiab txawv txav, lub ntau ntau yam uas sib dhos. Thiab txij li nws tsis yog lub nroog loj heev, nws yog qhov zoo tagnrho los tshawb xyuas nws kom huv si thiab mus ko taw, kom qhuas cov neeg muaj vaj tsev ntau kawg no.

Peb tuaj yeem tham txog cov hauv qab no cov qauv hauv cov qauv hauv Prague: Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Classical thiab Imperial, Historicist, Moorish Revival, Art-Noveau, Cubism thiab Rondocubism, Functionalist thiab Communist.

Romanesque architecture hauv Prague

Lub npe Romanesque qhia peb tias lub tsev tsim qauv no yuav tsum tau ua nrog cov neeg Loos thiab nws yog ib qho qauv uas tau muab coj los ua nyob hauv Europe hauv Hnub nyoog Nruab Nrab, pom tseeb tshwm sim los ntawm cov khoom qub tiv thaiv.

Romanesque architecture yog kev sib xyaw ntawm Roman thiab Byzantine thiab yog tus cwj pwm los ntawm arches, ornate kab ntawv, lub zog muaj zog thiab lub tsev siab siab, phab ntsa dav thiab hla kev sib cavCov. Cov tuam tsev yog li no yooj yim thiab symmetrical.

Dab tsi Romanesque architecture muaj nyob rau hauv Prague? Zoo muaj yog tus Rotunda ntawm tus Vaj Hla, los ntawm qhov kawg ntawm xyoo pua XNUMX, hauv nroog qub. Lwm rotunda, ncig lub tsev, yog cov ntawm San Martin, laus tshaj plaws nyob hauv lub nroog Nws pib txij lub sijhawm ntawm Vratislav I. Nws yog txij li lub xyoo pua XNUMXth thiab tsuas yog qhib thaum muaj kev ntseeg.

Kuj muaj tus rotunda ntawm St. Longinus, nyob rau ntawm txoj kev Stepanska thiab ze ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj hauv San Stepan. Nws yog qhov tsawg tshaj plaws rotunda hauv lub nroog thiab hnub tim txij li ib nrab ntawm xyoo pua XNUMXth. Peb muaj tus Basilica ntawm cov neeg dawb huv GeorgeTxawm hais tias nws muaj qee yam kev paub meej uas tau ntxiv rau nws hauv lub xyoo pua paub, tab sis nws khaws cia qhov zoo kawg nkaus thiab sab hauv.

Gothic architecture hauv Prague

Raws li peb hais saum toj no, cov style Romanesque dhau los ua Gothic hauv Fabkis nyob rau xyoo pua XNUMX. Tom qab ntawd nws nthuav dav mus thoob plaws sab Europe kom txog rau thaum XNUMXth caug xyoo, kom muaj kev txhawb siab nyob rau xyoo XNUMXth. Cov style no yog tsiag ntawv los ntawm Cov kab kos ntawm lub ntsej muag, cov xim iav pleev xim zoo nkauj, cov xim av thiab ntau qhov chaw zoo nkauj. Nws yog ib cov qauv pom heev hauv cov ntseeg thiab tom qab hauv cov tsev kawm qib siab. Nws hais txog lub zog ntawm Vajtswv thiab kev paub.

Nyob rau hauv Prague peb pom Gothic style ua ntej hauv Charles Choj, zoo nkauj, nyuam qhuav raug txum tim rov qab los. Kuj muaj tus Lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm St. Vitus, tsa los ntawm Charles IV xyoo 1344, thiab raug tshoov siab los ntawm Fab Kis cov tsev hais plaub, thiab cov Lub Koom Txoos poj niam ua ntej Tyn. Lub tsev teev ntuj no nyob hauv nruab nrab ntawm lub qub nroog thiab yog qhov zoo kawg nkaus, tshwj xeeb yog hmo ntuj. Nws tau tsim tsa hauv 1365 nrog cov nyiaj los ntawm cov tub luam German.

Kuj muaj tus Hmoov Ntauwd 65 meters siab, ua los ntawm Matous Rejsek xyoo 1475. Nws nyob ntawm qhov pib ntawm Coronation txoj kev thiab yog heev aristocratic. Taug qab nws Lub nroog San Agnes tsib Bohemia, nrhiav tau los ntawm Ntxhais fuabtais Agenes ntawm Premyslid hauv 1231. Nws yog Lub tsev gothic hiob hauv Prague thiab nws zwm rau Franciscan kev txiav txim. Nws kuj tau txais kev pab raws li tus crypt rau lub sijhawm no.

La Pob Zeb Tswb Tsev Nws yog ntawm Lub Qub Zos Square thiab yog lwm qhov piv txwv zoo nkauj ntawm Gothic hauv Prague. Nws tau tsim tsa thaum xyoo pua 80th thiab tau rov qab ua tiav nyob hauv XNUMXs ntawm xyoo pua XNUMXth.

Renaissance architecture nyob rau hauv Prague

Renaissance architecture tsim thaum pib ntawm xyoo pua XNUMXth thiab XNUMXth caug xyoo. Florence thiab nws dome yog cov piv txwv. Cov qauv no kis mus rau Ltalis ua ntej thiab tom qab ntawd rau Fabkis, Lub teb chaws Yelemees thiab cov tebchaws nyob sib ze, txawm mus txog ntawm Russia.

Renaissance architecture coj cov ntsiab lus ntawm Greek thiab Roman kev coj ua li ntawd rov qab los rau symmetry, geometry thiab tus muaj feem ntawm lub sijhawm ntawd. Yuav ua li cas? Siv cov ncej, domes, niches, kab ntawv thiab khoom pleev xim.

Hauv Prague Qhov Renaissance style tuaj yeem pom hauv Royal lub caij ntuj sov Palace, tsa los ntawm Ferdinando I hauv 1538 rau nws tus poj niam, Poj huab tais Anne. Tsis tas li ntawd nyob hauv Chav ua siNws tau nyob rau hauv Royal Gardens, yos ntawm nruab nrab-XNUMX xyoo pua. Ntaus pob tesniv thiab badmington tau ua si ntawm no, tsawg kawg hauv lawv cov txheej thaum ub. Lwm qhov piv txwv yog tus Schwarzenberg Palace, nyob rau hauv Hradcanske Square, xim dub thiab dawb thoob plaws nws cov façade.

El Lub Caij Ntuj Sov Palace Hnub Qub Nws yog lwm lub tsev Renaissance, zoo symmetrical, thiab tseem yog Lub tsev ntawm feeb, hauv lub qub nroog xwmfab. Nws muaj lub tsev dai kom zoo nkauj zoo nkauj nrog cov duab los ntawm Greek cov lus dab neeg thiab qee cov ntawv sau biblical tib yam. Nws pib txij thaum ntxov xyoo pua XNUMXth thiab ntseeg tau tias tau muaj cov khw muag khoom luam yeeb.

Lub tsev Baroque hauv Prague

Lub baroque style tau yug thaum ntxov thib kaum xya xyoo pua hauv Ltalis thiab loj hlob ntawm tes nrog Catholicism thiab Xeev. Cov style no Nws yog tsiag ntawv los ntawm cov paj ntaub ntoo puab, ntau ntau xim, lub teeb, ntxoov ntxoo, pleev xim, cov yeeb yuj pleev xim thiab ntau yam kubCov. Cov nom tswv Italian thiab cov ntseeg tau tshaj tawm cov qauv no kom nws pom tias lawv lub zog thiab muaj nyiaj ntau.

Hauv Prague cov style no pom hauv Lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm poj niam ntawm yeej, tsim los ntawm German Lutherans hauv 1613. Nws dhau mus rau hauv txhais tes ntawm Discalced Carmelites hauv 1620. Lub Strahov tsev kawm ntawv Nws nyob saum ib lub pov roob thiab yog lub tsev loj thib ob nyob hauv lub nroog. Nws lub sijhawm pib rau xyoo pua XNUMX thiab yog qhov zoo nkauj, thaj chaw zoo thiab qhov chaw zoo nkauj.

Kuj muaj tus Lub tsev teev ntuj hauv San Nicolás, nrog kev ua kom tiav dome, los ntawm XNUMXth caug xyoo. Tus Château Troja Nws yog ib puag ncig ntawm cov vaj zoo nkauj thiab qub vaj txiv hmab. Nws tau tsim tsa nrog cov nyiaj ntawm tsev neeg nplua nuj Sternberg thiab koj tuaj yeem tsis nco nws. Lub Loreta Nws yog los ntawm 1626 thiab nws paub yuav ua li cas mus rau hauv tes ntawm Capuchin tus mlom. Nws siv los ua lub hom phiaj pilgrimage thiab muaj qee yam khoom pleev zoo nkauj.

El Sternberg Palace Nws nyob hauv Hradcanske Square nws tau muab zais tom qab Archbishop's palace. Qab lub rooj vag hlau loj heev yog qhov Baroque pob zeb diamond ua qhov kawg ntawm xyoo pua XNUMXth.

Rococo architecture hauv Prague

Lub rococo yug los thaum xaus ntawm XNUMX caug xyoo nyob hauv cov teb chaws Europe txuas ntxiv mus thiab nws cov ntawv tawm tshiab fuses hais Fabkis cov ntsiab lus. Lub npe yog cov neeg koom siab ntawm barocco ua Italian nrog lo lus Fabkis rockeries, plhaub. Yog li cov style no muaj kev nplua nuj hauv kev nkhaus, kev ua kom zoo nkauj dhau mus, kho kom zoo nkauj, tsom iav, tsom iav, pleev xim rau ...

Hauv Prague koj pom qhov style rococo hauv Archbishop lub Palace ua nyob rau hauv 1420th caug xyoo, hloov lub qub rococo lub tsev hlawv nyob rau hauv XNUMX. Loj loj, dawb thiab imposing. Kuj muaj tus Kinsky Palace, nrog tus paj yeeb thiab dawb stucco facade uas yog qhov zoo nkauj. Nws tsim tau li ntawm XNUMXth xyoo pua.

Phaj thiab txheej thaum ub hauv Prague

Cov style no yog tsiag ntawv los ntawm ua imposing thiab nws muab yam ntxwv ntawm pej xeem tsev thoob plaws lub ntiaj teb, pabcuam rau hauv ornate style ntawm Rococo. Nws yog ib tug xoom pretentious style, qaug cawv, ntxiv rau ntawm cov neeg thiab lub Xeev dua ntawm cov nom tswv lossis cov txiv plig.

Nyob rau hauv Prague peb pom nws qhia nyob rau hauv lub Prague Lub Tsev Ua Yeeb Yam, nrog nws cov kem, nws cov palette lub teeb thiab nws cov phab ntsa pleev xim rau hauv lub teeb ntsuab. Nyob rau hauv no Mozart nws tus kheej qhia nws ua haujlwm.

Keeb kwm architecture nyob rau hauv Prague

Kev kawm keeb kwm hauv architecture thiab kos duab yog a rov qab mus rau yav tag los, rau classicism txawm hais tias muaj qee yam ntawm lwm cov neeg yeej nyiam. Nws tsis tshua pom zoo, vim hais tias architecture tsim nyog saib rau pem hauv ntej thiab tsis rov qab, tab sis nws tseem hais tias tam sim no hauv Prague.

Qhov twg? Hauv Tsev khaws puav pheej National hauv Prague, yos los ntawm lub xyoo pua puv XNUMX, ntawm Wenceslas Square, tus Kev ua yeeb yam hauv tebchaws los ntawm tib lub sijhawm, sab hauv ntawm Xeev Lub Tsev Opera, los ntawm 1888, lub Hanavsky Pavilion, hauv Parque Lena, txhim tsa xyoo 1891 thiab hauv lub neo-baroque style uas muaj hlau ntau.

Kuj muaj tus Lub tsev teev ntuj hauv San Pedro thiab San Pablo, nyob hauv Vysehrad fortress, neo-Gothic, nrog ob tus kauv yees thiab cov Lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm cov neeg dawb huv Ludmila, nrog kev saib zoo.

Moorish kev txhawb siab architecture hauv Prague

Hauv qee kis hauv Romantic Zog, Tebchaws Europe poob rau hauv kev nyiam nrog Sab Hnub Tuaj, tshwj xeeb hauv xyoo XNUMXth.

Los ntawm tom qab ntawd ntau lub tsev tau txhim tsa hauv Moorish kev txhawb siab lub zog, thiab yog tias Prague peb pom nws hauv Cov Neeg Mev Sib Tham ntawm 1868, raws li Alhambra thiab the Jubilee Synagogue ntawm 1906.

Kos duab-Nouveau kos duab hauv Prague

Kuv nyiam style, Kuv yuav tsum hais, uas tau cuam tshuam hauv ntau qhov chaw: cov hniav nyiaj hniav kub, khaub ncaws, rooj tog zaum, cov tuam tsev ... Hauv Prague peb pom qhov style zoo nkauj no hauv Koog Tsev ntawm 1911, lub Tsev so Evropa ntawm Wenceslas Square, ua rau xyoo 1889, lub Tsev so Paris 1904 thiab Wilsonova Lub Tsev ntawm qhov chaw nres tsheb ciav hlau.

Kuj muaj tus Muaj Palace, ib ntawm thawj zaug steel qauv nyob rau hauv cov av no, lub iav tiag tiag thiab hlau palace yos tawm ntawm 1891. Thaum kawg, kuj nyob hauv Art-Nouveau style yog Xai lub tsev, pem hauv ntej ntawm National Theatre thiab cov Chaw nres tsheb ciav hlau Vysehrad, qhov chaw nres tsheb tso tseg uas siv los ua kom zoo nkauj, lub Vinohrady Theatre, la Villa ZooQhov Koruna Zaj los yog Villa Bilek uas niaj hnub no ua Lub Chaw Saib Xyuas Lub Nroog.

Cubist thiab Rondocubist architecture

Cubism mus tes ua ke nrog tes Paul Cezanne thiab cov hnub tim pib ntawm thawj xyoo caum ntawm lub xyoo pua nees nkaum. Cubes, schemes, ib hom Cov ntawv thaiblos yog tshwj xeeb, uas tus dab tsi no yog hais txog. Nws tsis tuaj yeem txwv rau ib lub tebchaws thiab dhau ntawm Czechs peb tuaj yeem nco ntsoov cov neeg pleev kob Emil Fila lossis Josef Capek thiab ntau tus kws ua haujlwm thiab cov duab nrag uas tau tso lawv lub cim rau ntawm lub nroog.

Yog li, hauv qhov style no yog tus Lub tsev ntawm cov Madonna dub, ntawm lub tsev koom ua ke, tsim ntawm 1911 thiab 1912, lub Villa Kovarović, lub hom phiaj ntawm cov tub ntxhais kawm architecture. Kuj muaj tus cubist teeb ncej, qhov tsuas yog ib qho hauv ntiaj teb, ntawm lub ces kaum ntawm Wenceslas Square thiab Adria PalaceQhov Legio Bank, ntau rondocubist.

Functionalist architecture nyob rau hauv Prague

Cov qauv no hais tias lub tsev yuav tsum yoog tau nws siv, kom nws ua haujlwm, yog li nws yog tus cwj pwm cov kab ntshiab thiab me me lossis tsis paub meejs thiab ornamentation.

Nyob rau hauv functionalist style yog cov Villa MullerQhov Veletrzni Palace, lub tsev Manes Xyoo 1930, lub Tsev teev ntuj Wenceslas, los ntawm 30s, thiab tus Barrandov Terrace, ntawm Vltava dej, txawm hais tias tu siab nyob rau hauv hais ncaj tso tseg. Nws tau siv los ua lub tsev noj mov hauv xyoo 1929, muaj pas dej da dej, chav dej so ...

Communist architecture nyob rau Prague

Thaum kawg, peb los soviet lub sijhawm los ntawm Prague. Kev cais tawm nws kuj muaj nws tus kheej style: grand, grey, pob zeb uaCov. Dab tuag ntxiag.

Hauv Prague peb pom nws hauv lub qub Parliament tsev, txij li xyoo 60 los, lub tsev noj mov Expo 58, hauv Letna Park, lub Tsev so Plaza Hotel los ntawm xyoo 50, lub tKotva department khw, txij xyoo 1975, mus Zizkov Ntauwd TV 216 metres siab ua nruab nrab ntawm 1985 thiab 1992, thiab cov Vaj Huam Sib Luag, cov tuam tsev monumental tau txhim kho nyob rau sab nrauv ntawm lub nroog thiab tau tshwm sim los ntawm Le Corbusier.

Tom qab lub caij nplooj zeeg Communism, tsawg heev yog ua tau tsim sab hauv Prague, tab sis kuv xav hais tias nrog ntau yam yeej tawg khiav ri niab thoob plaws hauv lub nroog, tej tus hlub keeb kwm, kos duab thiab kos duab yuav muaj sij hawm taug kev lav.


Cov ntsiab lus ntawm tsab xov xwm ua raws li peb cov ntsiab cai ntawm kev tswj hwm kev ncaj nceesCov. Tshaj tawm ib qho yuam kev nyem no.

Yog thawj tus tuaj tawm tswv yim

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