Medusa, yemwe ali ndi njoka pamutu

Medusa

Medusa Iye ndi mmodzi mwa anthu odziwika bwino komanso osangalatsa kwambiri m'nthano zachi Greek. Zinali imodzi mwamagorgon atatu, limodzi ndi Stheno ndi Euryale, m'modzi yekha mwa alongo atatu owopsa omwe anali osafa.

Kodi gorgons anali ndani? Zilombo zazikuluzikulu izi zomwe amaopa Agiriki nthawi zakale anali akazi amapiko omwe mmalo mwa tsitsi pamutu pawo anali ndi njoka zamoyo. Komabe, izi sizinali zoopsa kwambiri kwa iwo. Choyipa chachikulu chinali chakuti, malinga ndi nthano, amene analimba mtima kuwayang'ana m'maso nthawi yomweyo anasandulika miyala.

Otsatira

Ndikosavuta kulingalira mantha omwe zolengedwa izi ziyenera kuti zidalimbikitsa Agiriki am'nthawiyo, omwe adatsimikiza nthano zakale zonsezo. Mulimonsemo, ziyenera kuti zinali zolimbikitsa kudziwa kuti ma gorgon amakhala kumalo akutali. Yatsani chisumbu chakutali chotchedwa Sarpedon, malinga ndi miyambo ina; kapena, malinga ndi ena, penapake anataya Lybia (chomwe ndi chomwe Agiriki amatcha kontinenti ya Africa).

The gorgons ali ana aakazi a Forcis ndi Keto, milungu iwiri yoyambirira m'chiphunzitso chovuta kwambiri chachi Greek.

Alongo atatuwa (Stheno, Euryale ndi Medusa), adalandira dzina la górgonas, kutanthauza kuti, "owopsa". Zinanenedwa za iwo kuti magazi ake anali ndi mphamvu youkitsa akufa, bola ngati idachotsedwa kumanja. M'malo mwake, magazi kumanzere kwa gorgon anali poyizoni wakupha.

nsomba za bernini

Bust wa Medusa wosema ndi Gian Lorenzo Bernini mu 1640. Chojambula chachikulu ichi cha Baroque chimasungidwa ku Capitoline Museums ku Rome.

Kulankhula makamaka za Medusa, ziyenera kunenedwa kuti dzinalo limachokera ku liwu lachi Greek loti Μέδουσα lomwe tanthauzo lake ndi "woyang'anira".

Pali nthano yakumapeto yomwe imanena kuti Medusa adachokera kosiyana ndi ma gorgon ena awiriwo. Malinga ndi izi, Medusa anali namwali wokongola yemwe akanakhala naye anakhumudwitsa mulungu wamkazi Athena kuipitsa kachisi m'modzi wopatulidwira iye (malinga ndi wolemba wachiroma Ovid, akadagonana ndi mulungu Poseidon m'malo opatulika). Uyu, wowopsa komanso wopanda chifundo, akanakhala anasintha tsitsi lake kukhala njoka ngati chilango.

Nthano ya Medusa yakhala ndi nyenyezi zambiri zojambulajambula kuchokera ku Renaissance mpaka zaka za zana la XNUMX. Mwina yotchuka kwambiri ndi kujambula mafuta ndi Caravaggio, yojambulidwa mu 1597, yomwe ikuwonetsedwa pachithunzichi yomwe ikutsogolera positiyi. M'zaka zaposachedwa, chiwerengero cha Medusa chanenedwa ndi magulu ena azachikazi ngati chizindikiro cha kupanduka kwa amayi.

Perseus ndi Medusa

M'nthano zachi Greek dzina loti Medusa ndilolumikizana mosasunthika ndi la Perseus, wakupha chilombo komanso woyambitsa mzinda wa Mycenae. Wopambana yemwe adamaliza moyo wake.

Danae, mayi a Perseus, adanenedwa ndi Zambiri, mfumu ya chilumba cha Seriphos. Komabe, ngwazi wachinyamata uja adayimilira pakati pawo. Polydectes adapeza njira yothetsera chopinga choterechi potumiza Perseus paulendo womwe palibe amene angabwerere wamoyo: kupita ku Sarpedon ndi bweretsani mutu wa Medusa, gorgon yekha wakufa.

Athena, yemwe adakali wokwiya ndi a Medusa, adaganiza zothandiza Perseus pantchito yake yovutayi. Chifukwa chake adamulangiza kufunafuna a Hesperides ndikupeza kwa iwo zida zofunikira kuti agonjetse gorgon. Zida zija zinali lupanga la dayamondi ndi chisoti chomwe adapatsa atachivala mphamvu yosawoneka. Analandiranso kuchokera kwa iwo chikwama chokwanira kukhala ndi mutu wa Medusa. Zowonjezera, Hermes adabwereka Perseus wake nsapato za mapiko kuwuluka, pomwe Athena yekha adamupatsa chishango chachikulu chopukutira galasi.

Perseus ndi Medusa

Perseus atanyamula mutu wa Medusa. Tsatanetsatane wazithunzi za Cellini, ku Piazza de la Signoria ku Florence.

Pokhala ndi zida zazikuluzi, Perseus adayenda kukakumana ndi ma gorgons. Mwa mwayi akanakhala nawo, adamupeza Medusa atagona m'phanga lake. Kupewa kuyang'anitsitsa kwake komwe kungakusiyeni muli ndi mantha, ngwaziyo imagwiritsa ntchito chishango chomwe chikuwonetsa chithunzi cha gorgon ngati galasi. Chifukwa chake amatha kupita kwa iye osamuyang'ana pankhope ndikumudula mutu. Kuchokera m'khosi lodulidwa kunabadwa kavalo wamapiko Pegasus ndi chimphona chotchedwa Chrysaor.

Atazindikira zomwe zidachitika, ma gorgons ena adayamba kutsatira wopha mlongo wawo. Apa ndiye kuti Perseus adagwiritsa ntchito chisoti chake chosawoneka kuti athawe ndikuwathawira.

Chizindikiro cha mutu womwe udadulidwa wa Medusa umadziwika kuti Gorgoneion, yomwe imapezeka m'mawonekedwe ambiri pachikopa cha Athena. Agiriki akale amagwiritsa ntchito zithumwa ndi ziboliboli za mutu wa Medusa kuti apewe tsoka komanso diso loyipa. Kale munthawi zachi Greek, Gorgoneion idakhala chithunzi chogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pazithunzi, utoto, miyala yamtengo wapatali komanso ndalama.


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