Iyo drakema, mari yechiGiriki pamberi peeuro

Wakambonzwa nezve drakema here? Chokwadi iwe unodaro, kunyanya kana iwe uri pamusoro pemakore makumi matatu ekuberekwa uye iwe uchigara muEurope. Iyo Drachm yaive mari yakashandiswa kanoverengeka kuGreece, kusvika pakuuya kweeuro muna 2001. Ine nhoroondo refu uye inonakidza uye inofanira kunge iri imwe yemari dzakare pasi rose, saka nhasi tichave tichiziva zvimwe zvitsauko zve rwendo urwu.

Drakema inodzokera kumashure zviuru zvemakore, asi usavhiringidzike sezvo isina kushandiswa zvinowirirana. Hongu zvirokwazvo, kubva pahafu yekutanga yezana ramakore rechiXNUMX shanduro nhatu dzemazuva ano yedrakema raonekwa munyika, kudzamara pakupedzisira Greece ikave nhengo yeEuropean Union uye ikagovana mari nedzimwe nyika dzese.

Drakema rekare

Tinogona kupatsanura nyaya yedrakema muzvikamu zviviri, drakema makarekare uye dhirakema remazuva ano. Zita racho rinobva kupi? Zvinotaridza kuti iro iro zita remari rine chekuita nezvingabatwa muruoko, drassomai, kana zvirinani ndizvo zvimwe zvakanyorwa pamahwendefa ekare, kubva mugore ra1100 BC, ayo anongedzera kune mashoma matanda esimbi matanhatu (mhangura, ndarira kana simbi), anonziwo oboli.

Nguva mushure yakava muyero wesirivheri wemari zhinji dzakagadzirwa nevaGiriki vekare. Gare gare, mari imwe neimwe yaive nezita rayo zvichienderana nekuti yaive muAtene kana muKorinde, semuenzaniso. Ehe, guta rimwe nerimwe raiva nemari yaro ine mucherechedzo wayo uye kuenzana pakati pavo kwakapihwa nehuwandu uye nemhando yesimbi iyo yavakagadzirwa nayo.

Pakati pemaguta ekare aishandisa drakema pane Alexandria, Corinth, Efeso, Kos, Naxos, Sparta, Syracuse, Troy neAthens, pakati pevamwe vazhinji. Pane imwe nguva muzana ramakore rechishanu BC mari yeAtene yakazivikanwa semadrakema mana yaizivikanwa zvakanyanya uye yaishandiswa. Tiri kutaura nezvaAlexander Mukuru.

Drakema rakagadzirwa nezviyero zvakasiyana, zvichienderana nemindi yaibatanidzwa mukuita uku. Iyo murezar, zvisinei, izvo zvakazopedzisira zvave kufarirwa, zvaive izvo zve 4.3 gramu, yakashandiswa zvakanyanya muAttica neAthens.

Gare gare, ruoko rwakabatana nekukunda uye kukunda kwaAlexander Mukuru, drakema rakayambuka miganhu uye yaishandiswa muhumambo hwakasiyana-siyana hwechiGiriki. Muchokwadi, zvinozivikanwa kuti mari yeArabhu, iyo Dirham, inowana zita rayo kubva kudrakema. Izvo zvakafanana nemari yeArmenia, iyo dham.

Kunyangwe kuve nekukwanisa kuziva nhasi kukosha kwedrakema rekare kwakanyanya kuoma (kutengeserana, kutengesa, hupfumi hwusina kufanana), vamwe vanoisa njodzi voti Muzana ramakore rechishanu BC drakema yaizosvika madhora 46.50 muna 2015 kukosha. Kupfuura izvozvo, chokwadi ndechekuti kunyangwe senge nemari dzazvino mari, madrakema mamwe chetewo aisadikanwa kugara kana kutsigira mhuri.

Zvidimbu uye kuwanda kwedrakema zvakagadzirwawo mumatunhu mazhinji. Semuenzaniso, muEgypt yevaPtolemy maive pentadrachmas y ochigochone. Nekudaro, muchidimbu, tinogona kutaura kuti huremu hwechinyakare dhirakema yesirivha hwaive hwakatenderedza 4.3 gramu (kunyangwe zvaisiyana kubva kuguta-nyika kuenda kuguta-nyika). Yaivewo yakakamurwa kuita matanhatu obols e0.72 gramu, yakakamurwa ichichinjika kuita ina madiki madiki emari ye0.18 gramu uye pakati pe5 kusvika 7 millimeter muhupamhi.

Drakema remazuva ano

Drakema yekare, ine zita rake rakakura uye rine simba, yakaunzwa zvakare muhupenyu hweGreek muhafu yekutanga yezana ramakore rechi1832, muna XNUMX, nguva pfupi mushure mekugadzwa kwenyika. Yakakamurwa kuita zana lepta, imwe yemhangura uye imwe yesirivha, uye paive nemari yedhirakema yegoridhe makumi maviri ine 20 gramu yesimbi iyi inokosha.

Muna 1868 Greece yakabatana neLatin Monetary Union, sisitimu yakabatanidza mari dzinoverengeka dzeEuropean kuita imwe, yaishandiswa nenyika dzenhengo, uye yakaramba ichishanda kusvika 1927. Kubva payapinda muboka. drakema rakaenzana nehuremu uye kukosha kuFrance franc.

Asi iyi Latin Monetary Union yakadonha muHondo yekutanga uye mushure mekupokana uku, mu New Republic Helena, imwe mari mitsva yakaumbwa. Uye chii chakaitika kumatikiti? Mapepa emari akapihwa neNational Bank yeGreece yakatenderedzwa pakati pe1841 na1928 uyezve Bhanga reGirisi rakaramba richiita saizvozvo kubva 1928 kusvika 2001 nguva iyo euro inopinda muchiitiko.

Asi chii chaivapo muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX drakema isati yasvika? Mari inonzi Phoenix, iyo yakaunzwa nguva pfupi nyika yawana kuzvitonga kubva kuOttoman Humambo. Muna 1832 ndipo panotsiviwa iyo phoenix nedrakema rakashongedzwa nemufananidzo waMambo Oto weGreek, mambo wekutanga wechiGiriki.

Sezvinowanzoitika kana paine inflation, uye Girisi yakave nezviitiko zvine hunyanzvi zvehupfumi, Mukati mezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri, mabhengi emari ane masangano ari kuwedzera kukura akaonekwas. Kunyanya munguva dzehutongi hweNazi muWWII.

Asi tichienderera nenhoroondo yemari iyi inozivikanwa, tinogona kutaura nezvayo chechipiri dhirakema yemazuva ano inoonekwa chaizvo mushure mekudonha kwevaNazi. NaGreece yakasunungurwa, inflation yakapararira uye chete mari yemapepa inogadzirwa, yenhamba dzinowedzera.

Muma50 isu takapinda munguva yechitatu yedrakema yanhasi, pakanga paine kudzikisira uye kukoshesa kwemari uye mabhiri epasi echechi akabuda mukutenderera. Chiyero chekutsinhana chakaramba chiri pamwero we 30 madrakema kudhora kusvika 1973. Kana isu tine ndangariro, zvakati wandei kana zvishoma panguva iyoyo kuti Dambudziko reMafuta rinoitika uye mamiriro emari anotanga kuchinja, kwete kuGirisi chete asi pasi rese.

Zvishoma nezvishoma, mamwe madrakema aidiwa kutenga dhora uye saka tinouya 2001, apo Girisi inobatana neEuropean Union uye drakema inomira kutenderera, yakadzoserwa ne euro.

Nyaya inoenderera mberi, nyika inoenderera mberi nekutarisana nematambudziko, mibatanidzwa uye kusabatana, dhora rinotonga, iyo euro inokwikwidza, iyo yuan inopenya nekuwedzera, saka hapana munhu anogona kuvimbisa kuti rimwe zuva European Union haizoputsike uye drachma ichaita yayo dzoka.kuonekwa kuGirisi. Unofungei?


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