Medusa, iya ine nyoka mumusoro

Medusa

Medusa Ndiye mumwe weanonyanya kuzivikanwa uye anonakidza manhamba mungano dzechiGiriki. Zvanga zviri rimwe remagorgon matatu, pamwe naStheno naEuryale, mumwe chete wehanzvadzi nhatu dzaityisa dzaive dzisingafi.

Ndivanaani vaiva ma gorgon? Izvi zvisikwa zvinotyisa zvinotyiwa nemaGreek munguva dzekare vaive vakadzi vane mapapiro avo pachinzvimbo chebvudzi mumisoro yavo vaive nenyoka mhenyu. Zvisinei, uku kwaive kusiri kwekutyisa kwavo. Chinhu chakaipisisa ndechekuti, sekureva kwengano, avo vakashinga kutarisa mumaziso avo vakabva vatendeuka kuita dombo.

Iwo ma gorgons

Zviri nyore kufungidzira kutya izvo zvisikwa izvi zvinofanirwa kunge zvakakurudzira mumaGreek enguva, avo vakatora zvese zvekare ngano dzechokwadi. Chero zvazvingaitika, zvinofanirwa kunge zvaikurudzira kuziva kuti ma gorgon aigara munzvimbo iri kure. Vhura chitsuwa chiri kure chinonzi Sarpedon, maererano nedzimwe tsika; kana, sekureva kwevamwe, kumwe kunorasika mukati Lybia (zvinova ndizvo zvakadanwa nemaGreek kondinendi yeAfrica).

Iwo ma gorgon ari vanasikana veForcis naKeto, vaviri vevanamwari vepamusoro mukati menzwisiso yakaoma yechiGiriki.

Hanzvadzi nhatu (Stheno, Euryale naMedusa), vakagamuchira zita rekuti górgonas, ndiko kuti, "zvinotyisa". Zvakataurwa pamusoro pavo kuti ropa rake raive nesimba rekumutsa vakafa, Chero bedzi yakabviswa kubva kurudyi. Pane kudaro, ropa kuruboshwe kuruboshwe rwegorgon yaive chepfu inouraya.

bernini jellyfish

Bust reMedusa rakavezwa naGian Lorenzo Bernini muna 1640. Ichi chivezwa chikuru cheBaroque chinochengetwa muCapitoline Museums yeRome.

Kutaura chaizvo nezve Medusa, zvinofanirwa kutaurwa kuti zita rayo rinobva pazwi rekare rechiGiriki Μέδουσα iro rinoreva kuti "muchengeti".

Kune ngano yekupedzisira inonongedzera kuna Medusa kwakatangira kwakasiyana neiyo yemamwe ma gorgon maviri. Zvinoenderana neizvi, Medusa aive akanaka musikana uyo aizove akagumbura mwarikadzi Athena achisvibisa imwe yetembere dzakatsaurwa kwaari (sekureva kwemunyori wechiRoma Ovid, angadai akarara namwari Poseidon munzvimbo tsvene). Iyi, yakaoma uye isina tsitsi, ingadai akachinja vhudzi rake kuita nyoka sechirango.

Ngano yeMedusa ine nyeredzi mune dzakawanda mabasa enyanzvi kubva Renaissance kusvikira XNUMX remakore. Zvichida inonyanya kuzivikanwa pane zvese ndeye kupenda kwemafuta naCaravaggio, yakapendwa muna 1597, iyo inoratidzwa mumufananidzo iyo inotungamira posvo. Mune dzimwe nguva dzichangopfuura, chimiro cheMedusa chakataurwa nemamwe mapato echikadzi sechiratidzo chekumukira kwevakadzi.

Perseus naMedusa

Mungano yechiGiriki zita rekuti Medusa rakabatana zvisingadzorekeki neiro ra naPerseus, monster muurayi uye muvambi weguta reMycenae. Gamba rakapedza hupenyu hwake.

Danae, amai vaPerseus, vakanzi na Polydectes, mambo wechitsuwa cheSeriphos. Zvisinei, gamba jaya akamira pakati pavo. Polydectes akawana nzira yekubvisa ichi chipingaidzo chinoshungurudza nekutumira Perseus pane mishoni uko hakuna munhu aigona kudzoka ari mupenyu: kuenda kuSarpedon uye uya nemusoro weMedusa, gorgon anofa chete.

Athena, achiri kushungurudzwa naMedusa, akafunga kubatsira Perseus mune yake yakaoma kuita. Saka akamukurudzira kutsvaga Hesperides uye kutora kubva kwavari zvombo zvakakosha kuti vakunde gorgon. Izvo zvombo zvaive Dhaimani pfumo nengowani yaakapa paakaipfeka simba rekusaonekwa. Akagamuchirawo kubva kwavari bhegi rinokwanisa kunyatsochengeta musoro waMedusa. Chii chimwe, Hermes akakweretesa Perseus yake shangu dzine mapapiro kubhururuka, nepo Athena pachake akamupa iye girazi hombe rakakwenenzverwa nhoo.

Perseus naMedusa

Perseus akabata musoro wakatemwa weMedusa. Tsanangudzo yeCarlini zvivezwa, muPiazza de la Signoria muFlorence.

Akashongedzerwa neiyi panoply ine simba, Perseus akafamba kunosangana nemagorgon. Sezvo rombo rakanaka raizove naro, akawana Medusa akarara mubako rake. Kuti udzivise kutarira kwake kwaizokusiya usina tariro, gamba rakashandisa nhovo yairatidza mufananidzo wegorgon segirazi. Nekudaro aikwanisa kufambira mberi kwaari asina kumutarisa kumeso uye nekumudimbura musoro. Kubva pamutsipa wakatemwa kwakazvarwa bhiza rine mapapiro Pegasus uye hofori inonzi Chrysaor.

Pavakaona zvainge zvaitika, mamwe ma gorgons akatanga kusimuka achitevera mhondi yehanzvadzi yavo. Ndipo panguva iyo Perseus paakashandisa ngowani yake yekusaoneka kutiza kubva kwavari nekuchengeteka.

Icho chiratidzo chemusoro wakagurwa musoro weMedusa unozivikanwa se Gorgoneion, iyo inowanikwa mumamiririri mazhinji pane nhoo yaAthena. VaGiriki vekare vaishandisa mazango nezvivezwa zvemusoro weMedusa kuti vadzivise rombo rakaipa uye ziso rakaipa. Nechekare munguva dzechiGiriki, iyo Gorgoneion yakave chifananidzo chinoshandiswa zvakanyanya mumosisi, kupenda, zvishongo uye kunyange mari.


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