Yaive sei tsika yema Mayan

Ndeipi yaive tsika yema Mayan? Kana iwe wakashanyira kumaodzanyemba kweMexico uye ukaona nzvimbo senge Chichen Itza, in the Yucatan peninsulakana Comalcalco, zvirokwazvo wazvibvunza iwe uyu mubvunzo. Nekuti izvo yekare yeMesoamerican budiriro ichiri kumutsa kufarira kukuru kwatiri.

Pakati payo anopfuura zviuru zvitatu zvemakore enhoroondo, tsika yeMayan yakasvika nhanho yepamusoro yekusimudzira. Aikwanisa kuvaka mapiramidhi akakura uye nezvimwe zvakavakwa zvakanyatsomira nekufamba kwenguva; kuronga masisitimu akaomarara ezvematongerwo enyika pasi pechimiro cheguta-nyika; kumisikidza maratidziro emakambani ane nzvimbo dzakapamhamha uye kuzadzisa danho rakakosha rehungwaru, pamwe nekunyora kwakanyanya kwazvo muCentral America yese. Kana iwe uchida kutsvaga kuti yaive tsika dzei maMayan, tinokukurudzira kuti urambe uchiverenga.

Yaive sei tsika yema Mayan munguva yavo yekubwinya kukuru

Nzira yakanakisa yekuswedera padyo netsika dzevaMayan ndeyekutarisa pane nguva yekuuya kweSpanish. Uye izvi nekuda kwezvikonzero zviviri: ndiro rakanyanya kunyorwa danho uye nguva iyo budiriro iyi yainge yawana dhigirii yepamusoro yekusimudzira. Tiri kuzoona tsika idzi dzichizvigadzira munzvimbo dzakasiyana nzanga.

Chitendero

Kufanana nevose vavakidzani veCentral America, vaMaya vaive vanonamata. Pakati pevamwari vavo, yaive Itzamna, iye mwari musiki akavewo akagadzira iyo cosmos uye, kunyanya, zuva. Asi zvakare vana chaak kana mwari wemadutu; iyo Pawatun akabata Pasi ne bacab vakaita zvimwe chetezvo nedenga.

Zvakare zvakakosha zvakanyanya aive mwari wenyoka ine minhenga, iyo yaigamuchira mazita akasiyana zvichienderana nenzvimbo (semuenzaniso, muYucatán yaidaidzwa Kukulcan), uye Quetzalcoatl, mwari wehupenyu. VaMayan vaitove nebhuku ravo dzvene pamabviro engano enyika. Akanga ari iye Popol Vuh, inonziwo iyo Bhuku Rezano yekuchengetedza zvakanyanya zveruzivo rwehupenyu hwako.

Maonero eComalcalco

Comalcalco

Kune rimwe divi, veMayan vaive neimwe pfungwa ine hutsinye yevanamwari vavo. Vakabhadhara mutero kwavari na zvibayiro zvevanhu nekuti vaitenda kuti ndiwo mabatiro avanovaita nekuvafadza. Asi, mukuwedzera, isu tinogona kutaura kuti vakauraya kuti vararame kwenguva refu. VaMayan vaitenda kuti nekupa hupenyu kuvamwari vavo, vakawedzera avo.

Yakanga isiri iyo chete chikonzero chavakaita zvibayiro zvevanhu. Ivo vakaendeswawo ku kumbira goho rakanaka nedzimwe nyaya dzine chekuita ne kushanda kweChechi semwaka nemamiriro ekunze.

Pakupedzisira, nepo yavo Olympus yaingove yakagadzirirwa vamwari, maMaya aive nedenga ravo. Iyo Xibalba Yakanga iri nzvimbo iyoyo, asi vese vakanaka nevakaipa vakaenda kwairi. Zvichienderana nemaitiro avo, vaibatwa zvinyoro-nyoro kana nehasha ipapo.

Mhemberero dzeMayan

Yakabatana zvakanyanya nechitendero yaive mhemberero dzevanhu veMayan. Izvi zvaisave zvakadaro muzviitiko zvese, zvimwe zvacho zvaive zvakashatisa. Asi, chero zvakadaro, zvese zvine chekuita nezviitiko zvavo zvetsika zvinokwezva kutarisisa kwako. Tiri kuzokuratidza mimwe yemhemberero idzi.

Kunamatwa kwemaseneti

Aya ma torcas kana nzvimbo dzenzvimbo dzekarst dzinonyudza dzinowanzoitika muYucatan peninsula, uko kune maguta evashanyi eaya anonzi Riviera Maya. Uchavashanyira sei kana iwe ukaenda kunharaunda iyi, isu tinokuudza kuti, kumaMayan, zvinyorwa zvaive Nzvimbo dzinoyera. Ivo vaionekwa senzira yekupasi uye nekudaro vaiita mhemberero nezvibayiro mazviri.

Mutambo webhora, usingadzivisike kana uchitaura nezvetsika dzevaMayan vaive vakaita

Hunhu hwakasiyana hwakanga hune dhorobha rino pok kuti pok kana bhora mutambo, imwe yemitambo inozivikanwa kwazvo yetsika dzavo. Kunyangwe nanhasi unogona kuona munzvimbo dzekuchera matongo minda yayaiitirwa. Asi yaive zvakare yakakosha zvakanyanya kumaMayan. Kuburikidza nemapato avo, vakagadzirisa kusawirirana pakati pemaguta, ndiko kuti, yaive imwe nzira yehondo.

Bhora mutambo munda

Bhora mutambo wenhabvu muMonte Alban

Nekudaro, avo vakarasikirwa nekatyamadzo vaiwanzowedzeredzwa. Naizvozvo, zvakare yaive neakakurumbira tsika yechikamu. Sezvo iwe uchizofarira kuziva kuti mutambo uyu waive wei, isu tinokuudza iwe kuti yaive yekupfuura bhora pamusoro pemambure emambure usingabate pasi. Uye ivo vaigona chete kumurova nemapendekete, magokora kana chiuno.

Hanal Pixan, zuva rake revakafa

Sezvazviri nhasi, maMaya aivewo nezuva ravo revakafa. Wakanga uri mutambo hanal pixan uye akarangarira vadikani nezvinonhuwira, mumhanzi, kudya, uye mimwe mhemberero.

Mabasa ekuonga kukohwa

Tenda kukohwa chiito chiripo mutsika dzese dzenyika, yapfuura neyazvino. VaMayan vaive nemhemberero dzakasiyana siyana dzehurongwa hwese hwekubereka kwenyika.

With the Pa Puul vakakumbira denga kunaya uye ne Sac Ha vakakumbira kuti chibage chikure. Kana zvibereko zvepasi zvangounganidzwa, vakavatenda nekutamba kwe Nan Patch. Pamhemberero iyi yekupedzisira, vakagadzira zvidhori kubva kumacobcobs, ndokuzviisa paatari uye vakapa minamato vachinwa pini, Yakagadzirwa nezviyo pachayo.

Dzimwe tsika

Pakupedzisira, the Xukulen Yakanga iri mhemberero yekusvika Itzamna, iye mwari mwari, kumubvunza hutano uye kubudirira, nepo Hetzmek Yakanga iri mhando yemhemberero yekubhabhatidza kune vadiki.

Zvematongerwo enyika uye chimiro chemagariro

VaMaya vaive nehurumende yavo iyo monarchy, kunyangwe zvakasiyana zvakanyanya nezviripo semuenzaniso kuSpain, England kana France munguva idzodzo. Zvisinei, pane zvimwe zvakafanana. Madzimambo avo aionekwa sevanakomana vamwari uye, nekudaro, simba rake rakabva kunaMwari. Panguva imwecheteyo, ivo vaishandisa hurumende yeguta ravo-dunhu kana nharaunda uye vachitoita sa vapristi.

Iyo Tembere yeGreat Jaguar

Tembere yeGreat Jaguar

Nezve nzanga, chinzvimbo chinotonga kana chepamusoro chakaumbwa, pamusoro pamambo pachake, nemumwe vapristi ve shamanic hunhu. Chitendero chaive chakakosha kwazvo munyika yeMay uye ndosaka madhimoni aive nesimba rakakura. Ivo kunyange kutora chikamu mumambo zvisarudzo. Pakupedzisira, danho rechitatu pakati pevapfumi raive iro vanokudzwa, aive nemazita ekuremekedza nhaka uye aipawo mazano kuna mambo.

Kune rimwe divi, kwaive nekirasi yepasi umo iyo vashandi nevashandi padhuze neiyo yakaderera link, iyo varanda. Iyo yekupedzisira yakashaiwa kodzero dzese uye yaive midziyo yemuchinda aive avatenga. Chekupedzisira, pamwe nekuvandudzwa kwebudiriro yeMayan, a middle class, yakaumbwa nevashandi vehurumende, vatengesi, mhizha, uye vemauto epakati.

Uto nehondo

Chaizvoizvo Hondo yaive yakakosha mukufunga kwea pre-Columbian vanhu. Ivo vaigara vachiwanda pakati pavo kana kupokana nenzvimbo dzaive padhuze uye mauto eMayan aive akanyatsogadzirira uye kuzvibata nawo kuraira kukuru. Paivapo mamenariAsi vese varume vakuru vane hutano vaifanirwa kutora chikamu muhondo, uye zvinotaridza kuti vakadzi vakaitawo mutsimba idzi.

Kune rimwe divi, ava varwi veMayan vaishandisa sezvombo uta nemuseve. Asi, zvakanyanya ivo vaishandisa iyo atlatl, anokanda dart, uye atove munguva dzeSpanish, pfumo refu kana greatsword. Uye zvakare, ivo vakamisikidza miviri yavo ne nhumbi dzokurwa nadzo yakagadzirwa nekotoni yakakoshwa yakaoma nemvura yemunyu.

Mayan maguta uye mapurani, inozivikanwa zvakanyanya yetsika dzeMayan

Maguta eguta iri pre-Columbian anga asina kuronga mumaguta. Saka, yakawedzera zvisina kujairika. Nekudaro, vangangoita vese vane nzvimbo yakaumbwa nezvivakwa uye zvemahofisi zvivakwa uye, kutenderedza izvi, dzinoverengeka nzvimbo dzekugara dzakawedzerwa nekufamba kwenguva.

Zvakawanda zvakanyanya kuomarara zvaive zvekuvakwa kweMayan, kusvika padanho rekuti budiriro iyi inoonekwa seimwe yedzakanyanya kugadzirwa kare maererano nekuvaka. Ivo vaitove nevashandi vane hunyanzvi.

Iyo Palenque yekuongorora

Palenque Kucherekedza

Vakavaka zvikwere, patio, matare emutambo webhora uye sacbeob kana driveways. Asi pamusoro pedzimba dzese dzemadzimambo, tembere, mapiramidhi uye kunyange nzvimbo dzekuongorora. Zvizhinji zvezvivakwa izvi, mukuwedzera, zvaive yakashongedzwa nemifananidzo, zvivezwa kana stucco zvidhori.

Zvichida chimwe chezvivakwa zvaro zvinobudirira ndeye piramidhi yeutatu. Inosanganisira chivakwa chikuru chakakomberedzwa nezvidiki zvidiki pamativi ayo uye chakatarisa mukati, zvese zvakavakirwa panzvimbo imwechete yepamusoro. Vakauya kuzovaita ehukuru hwakakura uye zvinofungidzirwa kuti fomu iri raive rakabatana ne ngano yeguta iro.

Mayan art

Unyanzvi hweMayan hune chinangwa kunyanya tsika, kunyange hazvo yaitaurawo mimwe misoro. Inogadzirwa nematombo kana zvivezwa zvemuti, pendi, mabwe anokosha uye maceramics. Ivo vaive neakasarudzika kufanirwa kwemavara girini nebhuruu iyo yavakashandisa iyo jade yematoni iwayo zvakanyanya.

Kune rimwe divi, mumaguta avo iyo ibwe stelae. Asi pamusoro pezvose, iyo yakatarisana yakashongedzwa stucco yakapendwa nemavara akajeka. Muchokwadi, vaive nechakakosha mural kupenda. Kana zviri zvemakeramiki avo, ivo vaiziva nzira dzepamberi dzekupfura kunyangwe iwo akanga asina mavhiri omuumbi. Nechikonzero ichi, zvidimbu zvinotenderera zvakaita semagirazi zvakagadzirwa nehumwe hunyanzvi hwakaita senge roll warping.

Mutauro uye kunyora, zvakakosha kuti uzive kuti dzaive tsika dzipi dzevaMayan

Nharaunda yega yega yebudiriro iyi yaive nemutauro wayo. Nekudaro, vese vakabva kumutauro wakafanana unonzi proto-mayan uyo anofungidzirwa kuti akaberekerwa munzvimbo dzakakwirira dzeGuatemala. Zvimwechetezvo, zvese zvinyorwa zvakachengetedzwa kubva kuClassic Period (kutenderedza XNUMXrd century BC) zvinoita kunge zvakanyorwa mune izvo zvinonzi cholti kana mutauro wechiMayan chaiwo.

Chaizvoizvo hurongwa hwekunyora hwetaundi iri hwakakosha zvikuru kuziva tsika dzavo. Uye izvi nekuda kwezvikonzero zviviri: yakasvika padanho repamusoro re kugadzikana uye, pamusoro pezvose, tinovaziva nekuda kwezvakanyorwa uye zvinyorwa zvavakatisiira.

Iyo Dresden Codex

Dresden Codex

Kunyange paine vatsvagiri vanozviramba, vamwe vanonongedzera kuchinyorwa ichi seyakagadziridzwa zvikuru. Masampuli ekutanga anobva muzana ramakore rechitatu BC. Asi zvisati zvaitika, kwaitove nemamwe maMesoamerican ekunyora masisitimu akadai Zapotec.

Rudzi rwe kunyora glyphicndiko kuti, zvichibva pamahieroglyphics muchitaera, semuenzaniso, wekare weIjipita. Kuenda zvakadzama zvishoma, isu tinokuudza izvo zvinoshandisa logograms kana kumiririrwa kweshoko, kwakabatanidzwa ne syllabic zviratidzo. Uye izvozvi zvave kunyatso kududzirwa.

Mabhuku mana pre-Columbian Mayan akachengetedzwa. Iyo Madrid Codex ndeye mhando yekushopera uye yakavakirwa pane iyo tzolkin kana inoera kutenderera kwemazuva emu vanhu veMesoamerican. Iyo Dresden Codex ine tafura yekuongorora nyeredzi uye nyeredzi, pamwe nerondedzero yemhemberero dzine chekuita negore idzva. Kana ari iye, Paris Codex Inotorwa senge mhando yemanyoro evapristi veMayan. Pakupedzisira, iyo Codex Grolier, ane chokwadi chakapikiswa kusvika nguva pfupi yadarika, achangobva kusimbiswa seyechokwadi uye ane mifananidzo yevamwari.

Nyeredzi uye karenda yeMayan

Zvakawanda zvakafungidzirwa nezve ruzivo rweyeredzi uye nemazuva ekarenda yaMayan izvo zvinodikanwa kuti utaure nezvazvo zvese. Ichokwadi kuti iri pre-Columbian taundi akanyatsoongorora matenga ekudenga.

Asi chinangwa chayo chaive chisiri ruzivo rwezvose, asi yaive ne chinangwa chenyeredzi, kushopera. Sechido chekuziva, isu tinokuudza kuti vakafunga kuora kwezuva nemwedzi sekunyanya kufungidzira kwematambudziko.

Kana iri iyo karenda, maMaya akawana kuverenga gore rezuva kunyangwe zvirinani kupfuura veEuropean venguva yake. Vakapatsanura nguva yavo kuita mazuva kana ruvengo, zvibodzwa kana winai uye makore-360-makore kana tun. Asi zvakaenzana, iwo aive akavakirwa pane matatu akapindirana enguva nguva: izvo zvambotaurwa tzolkin, Mazuva 260; iyo haab of 365 uye iko kufona karenda vhiri, kubva pamakore 52.

Imba yeMayan

Mayan mural kupenda

Hupfumi nekutengeserana

Chekupedzisira, isu tinokuudza iwe nezve Mayan hupfumi. Nezvekurima kwavo, zvinoita sekunge vaiziva michina yemhando yepamusoro. Vakazvidzidzira mukati materu uye dzimwe nzvimbo dzakasimudzwa iyo yavakadiridza nayo channels. Pakati pezvirimwa zvavanowana, chibage, mufarinya, bhinzi yakafara, squash, sunflower kana donje zvakakosha. Asi iyo cacao, kunyanya nemapoka ayo anotonga, zvakanyanya zvekuti dzimwe nguva yaishandiswa semari.

Kune rimwe divi, vaMaya vanoita kunge vange vari vatengesi vakuru. Maguta makuru akapemberera misika uye vakava nzvimbo dzakakosha dzekutengesa. Zvinhu zvakatakurwa nemhuka mumigwagwa yazvo kana nechikepe mumigwagwa ndokusvika iyo yese yeMesoamerican dunhu. Zvinhu zvakakurumbira kwazvo zvaive zvemachira, zvishongo kana maceramics, asi zvakare zvigadzirwa zvekudya.

Mukupedzisa, takuratidza yanga iri sei tsika yema Mayan, mumwe wevanhu vemberi-pre-Columbian vanhu mukondinendi yese yeAmerica. Vakaumba nzanga inofarira kwazvo nyeredzi uye dhizaini, asi zvakare mune zvekutengeserana nezvakakosha.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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