Ubomi bamadoda eSparta

Kwinkcubeko edumileyo sonke sasiwazi amadoda e Sparta enkosi kumdlalo bhanyabhanya 300. Umxholo weklasi yezembali wathunyelwa ngesiquphe kumdlalo bhanyabhanya kwaye umboniso bhanyabhanya waguqula umfanekiso weSpartans ngonaphakade.

Kodwa babunjani ubomi eSparta? Ngaphandle kwemizimba eqingqiweyo kunye nobugcisa bemfazwe, Babunjani ubomi kumadoda aseSpartaBafundiswe njani, loluphi uhlobo losapho, babenjani abafazi babo?

ISparta, imbali yayo

ISparta yayi ilizwe ledolophu yeGrisi yakudala, emi elunxwemeni lomlambo i-Eurotas, eLaconia, mpuma mpuma we Peloponnesus. Ukuqhubela phambili komkhosi kwenzeka malunga ne-650 BC kwaye iklasikhi Ubutshaba neAthene Ngexesha leMfazwe yePeloponnesi, phakathi kuka-431 no-404 BC Wayiphumelela le mfazwe kwaye wakwazi ukugcina ukuzimela kwakhe kwezopolitiko de kwafika uloyiso lwamaRoma eGrisi.

Emva kwe ukuwa kobukumkani baseRoma kunye necandelo layo elalandelayo, iSparta ayinakubaleka kuloo meko kwaye ukuqaqamba kwawo kwehlileNditsho nabantu bayo baphela besishiya isixeko ebudeni bamaXesha Aphakathi.

Kodwa ezo nkulungwane zibalulekileyo zazanele ukuba zibe nesahluko sazo kwimbali, kwaye kungenxa yenkqubo yayo yezentlalo kunye nomgaqo-siseko wayo ogxininisa ukubaluleka komkhosi kunye nokugqwesa kwawo.

Uluntu lwaseSpartan lwahlulwa ngokucacileyo lwaba ngumtya: babengabemi nawo onke amalungelo abo, abizwa ngokuba ngabaseSpartan, kodwa bekukho ne iinundu, abantu ababengengabo abakwaSpartan nangona bevela kwiSpartans, kwaye babekhululekile. Kwakukho ne iperioikoi, hayi iiSpartan zasimahla kunye molwenis, hayi amaSpartan awayengamakhoboka aseburhulumenteni.

Amadoda aseSpartan ayengabaphikisi bokwenene beli hlabathi, bona kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ezinye iinundu kunye ne-perioikoi, baqeqeshelwa idabi kwaye baba ngamagorha abalaseleyo. Abafazi? Ekhaya, ewe, ngamalungelo amaninzi kunabanye abafazi bexesha lakhe.

Imbali ye-Sparta inokwahlulwa ibe ixesha langaphambi kwembali, elinye iklasikhi, elinye ilizwe lamaGrike kunye nelinye lamaRoma. Emva kwexesha, emva kwexesha kunye nexesha langoku lilandela. Ixesha lokuqala kunzima ukulenza ngokutsha kuba yonke into igqwethwa yimeko yokuhanjiswa kolwazi. Ixesha le-Classic, kwelinye icala, lelona lirekhodiweyo kuba liyahambelana nokudityaniswa kwamandla eSpartan usingasiqithi.

Eyona nto ibalaseleyo, iSparta yayinabemi abaphakathi kwama-20 35 ukuya kuma-XNUMX., Kunye namanye amacandelo abantu abenza intlalo yakhe. Ngale mali yabantu ISparta yayisesinye sezona zixeko zibalulekileyo nezibalulekileyo kwisixeko-samaGrike.

Kukule xesha lokuba ibe lilivo Imfazwe yaseThermopylae Oko sikubona kwimovie, ngokuchasene nomkhosi wasePersi. Izinto zenzekile kancinci kwifilimu, ephela ngokoyiswa okuhloniphekileyo kwabaseSpartan. Kubomi bokwenyani, emva konyaka, iSparta ikwazile ukuziphindezela ngokuba yinxalenye yomanyano lwamaGrike nxamnye namaPersi, kwidabi lasePlataea.

Apha amaGrike aphumelela kwaye ngolo loyiso yaphela iMfazwe yamaGrike - yamaPersi kunye neminqweno yamaPersi yokungena eYurophu. Nangona yayilumanyano lwamaGrike olwaphelayo kubo, kuloo mfelandawonye ubunzima bamajoni aseSpartan, iinkokheli zomkhosi wamaGrike, zazibaluleke kakhulu.

Kwakhona ngeli xesha lakudala iSparta lafumana umkhosi walo, xa ngokwesiko yayingumkhosi womhlaba. Kwaye yenze kakuhle kangangokuba yafudusa amandla omkhosi waseAthene. Ngapha koko, kokona kulungileyo, iSparta yayingenakuthintelwa, ilawula wonke loo mmandla kunye nezinye izixeko kunye neTurkey yanamhlanje.

Eli gunya lamzisela intshaba ezininzi kwafuneka ajongane namanye amaGrike kwimfazwe yaseKorinte. Kule mfazwe, iArgos, iKorinte, iAthene neThebes zajoyina iSparta, ezazikhuthazwa zaza zaxhaswa ngamaPersi. I-Sparta yafumana ukoyiswa okubaluleke kakhulu kwi-Battle of Cridus, apho ama-Greek kunye nama-Phoenician mercenaries bathatha inxaxheba ngokuchasene nayo kwicala lase-Athene, kunye noxinzelelo lwayo lokunyusa lwancitshiswa.

Emva kweminyaka emininzi yokulwa, kwasayinwa uxolo, i Uxolo lweAntalcidas. Ngayo, zonke iidolophu zamaGrike i-Ionia zabuyela kwi-Persian aegis kunye nomda wase-Persia wase-Asia wakhululwa kwisoyikiso seSpartan. Ukusukela ngoko ukuya phambili iSparta yaqala ukungabaluleki kangako kwinkqubo yezopolitiko yamaGrike, kwanakwinqanaba lomkhosi. Inyani yile yokuba akazange achache ekoyisweni kwiDabi laseLeuctra kunye ne ungquzulwano lwangaphakathi phakathi kwabemi balo abohlukeneyo.

Ngamaxesha e- UAlexander omkhulu ubudlelwane bakhe noSparta yayingeyiyo yonke into entle. Ngapha koko, amaSpartan ayengafuni ukujoyina amanye amaGrike kwi-League eyaziwayo yaseKorinte xa yayisekwayo, kodwa banyanzelwa ukuba benze njalo kamva. Kwi IPunic Wars Sparta ikwiRiphabhlikhi yaseRoma, ihlala izama ukugcina inkululeko yayo, kodwa ekugqibeleni yaphela ilahlekile emva kokuphulukana neMfazwe yaseLaconia.

Emva kokuwa koBukhosi baseRoma umhlaba waseSparta wonakaliswa ziiVisigoths kwaye abemi bayo baba ngamakhoboka. KumaXesha Aphakathi uSparta waphulukana nokubaluleka kwawo ngonaphakade, kwaye iSparta yanamhlanje kwafuneka ilinde iinkulungwane ezininzi, kude kube yinkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ukuze iphinde isekwe ngukumkani wase-Greek u-Otto.

Sparta, uluntu lwayo

Sparta yayingu-oligarchy ilawulwa yindlu yasebukhosini yelifa, amalungu ayo ayevela kwiintsapho ezimbini, iAgiad kunye ne-Eurypontid. Babanga inzala evela eHeracles. Ookumkani babenayo inkolo, ezomkhosi kunye nokuzibophelela kwezomthetho. Kwimicimbi yezenkolo inkosi yayingumbingeleli omkhulu, kwimicimbi yezomthetho izigwebo zakhe zazinegunya kwaye kwimicimbi yezomkhosi wayeyinkokeli epheleleyo.

Ubulungisa bezoluntu babulawulwa ngakumbi liqela lamagosa aphezulu, amadoda amadala angama-28 akwiminyaka engama-60, ngokubanzi eyintsapho yasebukhosini. Yonke into yaxoxwa phakathi kwabo emva koko umba ekubhekiswa kuwo wagqithisela kwelinye iqumrhu elihlangeneyo, kodwa ngeli xesha labemi baseSpartan, abavote oko kucetywayo ngabadala. Eminye yale micimbi yombutho kwaye amandla kakumkani ayatshintsha ngokuhamba kwexesha, Ngokuphulukana nawo awona magunya.

Umfana waseSpartan wafundiswa esemncinci kwaye ngamanye amaxesha babekhona abantwana bamanye amazwe ababevunyelwe loo mfundo. Ukuba owasemzini wayelunge kakhulu, mhlawumbi wayenikwa ubumi.

Kodwa le mfundo ihlawulwe Ke nokuba ubunguSpartan, ngaphandle kwemali bekungekho mfundo kwaye ngaphandle kwemfundo bekungekho bumi. Kodwa lwalukho olunye uhlobo lwemfundo kwabo babengekho kwasekuqaleni, abemi. Ithiyiwe iperioikoi, kwaye yayenzelwe abo babengengabo abakwaSpartan.

Kuya kufuneka uyazi ukuba ngokwenyani e-Sparta, iiSpartan ngokwazo zazimbalwa. Uninzi lwalunjalo molo, abantu ababevela eLaconia naseMessenia ekuqaleni kwaye abantu baseSpartan babephumelele emfazweni kwaye bekhoboka. AbaseSpartan abakhange babulale amadoda nabafazi kwaye abantwana baba luhlobo lwamakhoboka. Emva koko, ii-helots zaba ngathi zi-serfs, njengakwamanye amazwe aseGrisi.

Ii-Helots zingagcina i-50% yeziqhamo zomsebenzi wazo kwaye zitshate, banenkolo kwaye banento eyeyabo, nokuba hayi amalungelo ezopolitiko. Kwaye ukuba babezizityebi ngokwaneleyo, thenga inkululeko yabo. Ngoba? Ewe, eSparta amadoda azinikele kwi-100% emfazweni ukuze angabinakho ukwenza imisebenzi yesandla, yile nto yayenzelwe yona. Obu budlelwane babungenazo ezinye iicrispies, kodwa kuyacaca ukuba abantu baseSpartan babebathemba njengoko babede benza amaqela emikhosi.

Ngapha koko, kwabakho nemvukelo yamakhoboka eAthene kwaye abo babalekayo babalekela eAtica bayokubalekela phakathi kwemikhosi yaseSpartan. Kwaye yile nkalo yoluntu lwaseSpartan luyenze yahlukile. Ngayiphi na imeko, ekugqibeleni, bekukho ukungavisisani okoko ii-helots bezisesona sikhulu. Kwaye uthini ngabanye, the iperioikoi? Nangona babenemvelaphi efanayo yentlalo njenge-helots, babengenasikhundla sinye. Akukaziwa kakuhle ukuba bekuyintoni, kuba bekhululekile kodwa bengenazo izithintelo ezifanayo nezo.

Kodwa ukuba i-helot okanye i-perioikoi kwakungelula, kwakungekho nokuba yi-Spartan. Xa kuzalwa umntwana, ukuba wayekhubazekile okanye egula, waphoswa kwiNtaba iTaygetos. Ukuba bendiyinkwenkwe waqala uqeqesho lwakhe eneminyaka esixhenxe ukufezekisa uqeqesho kunye nokugqwesa ngokwasemzimbeni. Banikwa ukutya okwaneleyo, hayi kakhulu, ukuze bafunde ukuphila ngokuncinci. Ukongeza kwimfundo yokufunda ukulwa nokuphatha izixhobo, bafunde nomdaniso, umculo, ukufunda nokubhala.

Kwiminyaka ethile kwakuqhelekile ukuba babenomcebisi, ngokubanzi umntu omdala oselula, ongatshatanga onokubakhuthaza njengomzekelo. Kukwathethwa namhlanje ukuba babenjalo amaqabane ezesondo, nangona ingaziwa ngokuqinisekileyo. Siyakuhlonipha uku imfundo yamantombazana kuncinci kakhulu okwaziwayo, nangona kucingelwa ukuba nabo bafundisiwe ngenxa yesazela, nangona kugxininiswa kwezinye izinto.

Kwiminyaka engama-20, ummi waseSpartan wayeyinxalenye yeklabhu enamalungu ali-15, syssia. Ubophelelo lwabo luphele ngokusondeleyo kwaye baneminyaka engama-30 kuphela abanokuthi basebenzele i-ofisi yoluntu. Kude kube yiminyaka engama-60 bebesebenza. Batshata nge-20 kodwa babekunye nosapho lwabo nje ngama-30 xa babethatha umhlala-phantsi kubomi basemkhosini.

Inyaniso yileyo malunga nobomi basemkhosini baseSparta zininzi iintsomi, zonke zihonjisiwe. Kukho owomfazi omnika ikhaka ngaphambi kokuba aye emfazweni, ukumxelela "Kuye okanye naye", oko kukuthi, ufile okanye woyisile. Kodwa enyanisweni, abafileyo baseSpartan ababuyanga, bangcwatyelwa kwibala lomlo. Enye intsomi isixelela ngoomama baseSpartan ababathiyileyo abantwana babo ababuthathaka, kodwa kuyabonakala ukuba ezi nyani zavela eAthene, ukuzidelela.

Ukuthetha ngabafazi, oomama nabafazi ... Wawunjani umtshato eSparta? UPlutarch uthi isiko "Yiba umakoti". Intombazana leyo yacheba intloko yaza yanxiba njengendoda yokulala ebhedini ebumnyameni. Ke isoka lalingena emva kwesidlo sangokuhlwa kwaye lalala naye.

Ngenxa yoku, akukho kunqongophala kwabantu abacinga ukuba eli siko, elikhethekileyo eSparta, lithetha ngokucacileyo ukuba umfazi kufuneka azenze umntu ukuze indoda yakhe ikwazi ukulala naye, eqhelene ngesondo phakathi kwamadoda .. .

Ngapha koko, Umfazi waseSpartan wayenendawo ekhethekileyo phakathi kwabafazi bamandulo. Oko bazalwa babesondliwa njengabantakwabo, khange bahlale ekhaya, babenokuzilolongela ngaphandle kwaye batshate kwinqanaba lokufikisa okanye nakwiminyaka yama-20. Umbono yayikukuthintela ukukhulelwa okuncinci kakhulu ukuze kuzalwe abantwana abasempilweni kwaye abasetyhini abafanga kwangoko.

Kwaye nokuqinisekisa negazi elomeleleyo isiko loku yabelana ngomfazi yamkelwa. Mhlawumbi indoda endala yanika umfana osemncinci imvume yokulala nomfazi wakhe. Okanye ukuba oyena mdala akanakuba nabantwana. Ngokucacileyo, amasiko ahamba kunye nento yokuba amadoda asweleke edabini kwaye bekuyimfuneko ukuba kungabanciphisi abantu. Ukongeza, abasetyhini babefundisiwe kwaye babenelizwi labo, ngokungafaniyo nabasetyhini baseAthene nakwezinye izixeko zedolophu.

Ngaba ubuyazi yonke le nto malunga neSparta?


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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