Igqala likaHans Brinker

Ukuqhuba XIX kwinkulungwane nakuMntla Merika enye ye Iincwadi zabantwana ethandwa kakhulu kwaba UHans Brinker okanye iziqwenga zesilivere, ibhalwe ngu UMary Mapes Dodge. Eyona nto ithengiswa kakhulu kuncwadi lwabancinci.

Ngelo xesha kwakungekho bhanyabhanya, kungekho midlalo yevidiyo, kungekho nomabonwakude. Kwakukho uncwadi kuphela kwaye kukho iintlobo ezininzi ezijolise kubaphulaphuli abahlukeneyo. Ngokwemvelo, oku kunjalo, kodwa kule mihla ukubhala kukhuphiswano olukhulu. Nangona kunjalo kwiinkulungwane ezimbini ezidlulileyo oku Inoveli yabantwana yayidume njengokonga lukaHarry Potter namhlanje.

Umbhali kaHans Brinker

Le noveli yapapashwa ngo-1865 ngumntu waseMelika UMary Mapes Dodge. UMary wazalwa ngoJanuwari 1831, kwisiXeko saseNew York. Wayeyintombi yomfazi wendlu kunye notitshala, umqambi kunye nosokhemisi, ke wayenemfundo elungileyo. Mncinci kakhulu, kodwa ngokuhambelana nexesha, watshata negqwetha, uWilliam Dodge, eneminyaka engama-21 ubudala, wamkela igama lakhe lokugqibela njengesiko.

Kwiminyaka emine elandelayo wazala oonyana ababini kunye ngo-1858 umyeni wakhe wamshiya ukuvela orhaxiwe ethubeni. A) Ewe, eneminyaka engama-27 ubudala wayengumhlolokazi ndinabantwana ababini ukuba ndibaxhase. Abazali bakhe bamnceda kwaye kunyaka olandelayo ukungazoli kwakhe kuncwadi kwaba nesiqhamo xa bhala kwaye upapashe iimagazini ezimbini kunye namanye amabali amafutshane.

Ngenye imini bamcela ukuba abhale inoveli kwaye hayi amabali amafutshane, kwaye yindlela awazalwa ngayo UHans brinker. Kubonakala ngathi wayephefumlelwe luthotho lwamabali abhalwe nguJohn L. Motley, Ukuzalwa kweRiphabhlikhi yaseDatshi, Ukususela ngo-1856, e Imbali yaseNetherlands.

Inyani yile yokuba uMary akazange aye eNetherlands, kodwa wafumanisa okungakumbi malunga nelizwe kwaye wenza uhlobo oluthile lophando lwasendle ngokudlan 'indlebe nabamelwane bakhe ababengamaDatshi. Nangona xa ufunda ibali awudibani namagama amaninzi amaDatshi, endaweni yesiJamani.

Kodwa uMary wenza umsebenzi wakhe wasekhaya kakuhle, ke inoveli inolwazi oluhle kakhulu malunga nale nkcubeko yayingaziwa ngamehlo aseMelika. Kungenxa yoko le nto iye yathandwa ngokwenene ngokukhawuleza kwaye yayithengisa kakhulu kunyaka wayo wokuqala wokupapashwa, into eyayifezekile ngaphambili kuphela Umhlobo wethuNguCharles Dickens. Ukusukela ngoko ihlala ingena kwaye iphuma kumatshini wokushicilela kwaye kule mihla ungayifumana funda kwi-intanethi.

 

Ngaba ikhona ukulungelelaniswa kwefilimu? Ewe, eneneni kukho uhlengahlengiso oluninzi kwifomathi ezahlukeneyo. Oko kukuthi, ngo-1958 a umculo kamabonakude, ngo-1962 a Imovie yeDisney TV eyayibonakaliswe kwiindawo ezimbini; Ngo-1969 i-NBC yenza omnye umculo, ngo-1998 I-Disney Channel wenza uhlengahlengiso oluhle kakhulu kwinguqulelo yoqobo yefilimu, eyayibekwe eLos Angeles, kwaye ekugqibeleni, Ngo-2002 ifilimu yaseRussia yadutyulwa, Izikeyiti zesilivere, ingxelo yasimahla yebali.

I-Netherlands nayo ikwazile ukwenza udumo lwembali ke kukho imifanekiso eqingqiweyo apha naphaya, nangona kwelinye icala leAtlantic ibali alaziwa kangako. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ihostele eAmsterdam ebizwa ngokuba yiHans Brinker.

UHans Brinker, ibali

Inoveli ibalisa ibali lenkwenkwana elihlwempuzekileyo kodwa elinyanisekileyo elineminyaka eli-15 elihlala eAmsterdam nonina nodadewabo. Isixeko sihlala sibambe umdyarho wokutyibilika emkhenkceni ngoDisemba nakwenye yemijelo yesixeko esidumileyo. Umvuzo ibhasikidi yesilivere.

Ewe, ukuthatha inxaxheba yeyona nto uHans ayifunayo, kodwa ukuba lihlwempu kunamathuba ambalwa kakhulu ngezihlangu zakhe zomthi ezithobekileyo. Kwakhona, ukwenza ibali libe lusizi ngakumbi, Uyise kaHans ulahlekelwe yimemori. Ngenye imini, ngelixa wayesebenza, wawela edamini kwaye ukusukela ngoko uye wahlala ngaphandle kwememori kunye nesiqingatha e-trance, isiqingatha sogonyamelo olunobundlobongela, enyanzela yonke intsapho yakhe ukuba isebenze ukuze iphile.

Kodwa uHans uyinkwenkwe elungileyo kwaye uyamthanda utata wakhe, ke Ngenye imini uya kuthetha nogqirha, UGqirha Boekman, ugqirha othathe umhlala-phantsi kunye nomhlolo ononyana olahlekileyo. Emangaliswe sisimo sengqondo senkwenkwana eneminyaka eli-15 ubudala, iyavuma ukutyelela utata wayo kwaye, emva kokuyijonga, inika isifo sayo: unesifo sokudakumba kwaye ufuna utyando.

Ngokucacileyo, utyando luyabiza kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo akanakufikelela kusapho oluhlwempuzekileyo. Ugqirha ugqiba kwelokuba angahlawulisi ngotyando, kodwa kunjalo uHans ubona ukuba ufuna imali kwaye lelona thuba lokuyifumana thatha inxaxheba kugqatso kwaye uphumelele izikethi zesilivere. Ukuzimisela, uHans uchitha yonke imali yakhe encinci ayithengayo kwaye uthenge izibini zezikhuselo, enye yeyakhe kwaye enye ibe ngudadewabo uGretel, naye oza kuthatha inxaxheba.

Izihlangu ezintsha zenziwe ngentsimbi kwaye zingcono kunezo zindala ezenziwe ngomthi. Kwaye usuku olukhulu lokubaleka komkhenkce luyafika. I-Gretel iphumelele kudidi lwamantombazana kwaye iphumelele ezakhe iziqwenga zesilivere. Kwelakhe icala, uHans unethuba lokuphumelela kodwa ulahlekelwe ngumhlobo odinga imali ngaphezulu kunaye. Inkwenkwe inyanisekile kwaye inentliziyo entle.

Okokugqibela, uGqr Boekman angawenza umsebenzi kwaye hans utata ubuyele esiqhelweni. Ngale nto, imeko yosapho iyaphucuka, kodwa iyaphucuka ngakumbi xa befumana ubuncwane obufihliweyo. Ukubethwa kabini kwithamsanqa kwaye njengebhonasi, ugqirha owayengazi ukuba uphi unyana wakhe uyakwazi ukumfumana.

Kwaye kuthekani ngomfana okhaliphileyo nothembekileyo? Ekugqibeleni ugqirha uyamnceda angene kwikhondo lomsebenzi wobugqirha ukuze UHans waba ngugqirha ophambili. Isiphelo esonwabisayo esidala, akunjalo?

UHans Brinker okanye izihlangu zesilivere, uhlelo olo

Inoveli yoqobo ngesiNgesi yapapashwa ngo-1865 kwaye yayithengiswa kakhulu. Ngelo xesha, abantwana babengenayo enye indlela yokonwaba ngaphandle kwemidlalo kunye neencwadi, kwaye abo babekwazi ukuzifunda okanye ukuzifundela bafumana amaxesha amnandi kula mabali.

Inoveli kaMary Mapes Dodge yanika abantwana baseMelika a Ihlabathi elitsha: i-skating, inkcubeko yelinye ilizwe enjengeDatshi kunye nebali elimnandi elinesiphelo esimnandi.

Ngaloo ndlela, Uhlobo lwe-Dutch skating skating lwaqala ukuthandwa e-United States nakumajelo eendaba aqala ukukhula ngokubambisana nophuhliso lwesizwe. Ixesha lahamba nangoku UHans Brinker ufana nesantya esine-quintessential skater.

Cinga ukuba le noveli ngumhla Mfazi omncincis, nguLouise May Alcott okanye  Umalume kaTom CabinNgu-Harriet Beecher Stowe. Abafazi abathathu, ababhali abathathu benkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunye noncwadi lolutsha.

Kungekudala emva koko, mhlawumbi enye yeencwadi ezithandwa kakhulu kwiincwadi zolutsha zaseMerika, uTom Sawyer noHuckleberry Finn, beza kutshintsha ikhosi ye-North American genre kunye ne-literary field ngonaphakade. Kodwa kuqala, kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuba abafazi abathathu babhala ezakudala zoncwadi lokwenyani.

Ngaba uyazibuza ukuba le ncwadi inenguqulelo yeSpanish? Kunjalo! Kukho iinguqulelo ngeSpanish, isiFrentshi kunye nesiTaliyane kwaye njengoko benditshilo, ukuhamba nje uze ufumane ingxelo ekwi-Intanethi ukulazi ibali, ulifunde kwaye ulixabise namhlanje, ngaphezulu kwenkulungwane kamva.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*