Izixhobo zomculo zaseTshayina

umculo wesintu wamaTshayina

Kwimbali ende ye iTshayina bonke ubugcisa bulinyiwe. Umculo nawo. Isebenze ngokuhambelana nazo zonke iintlobo zeminyhadala, imithendeleko kunye nemibhiyozo kuzo zonke iinkulungwane. Uninzi lwabantu bakudala Izixhobo zomculo zeshayina basindile ukuza kuthi ga kulo mhla, ngaphezulu okanye kancinci kulungisiwe. Bangamangqina enkcubeko yakudala kunye nokubonisa ukuba isithethe somculo selizwe sisaphila.

Izithandi zobulumko zamandulo zamaTshayina kunye neengcinga, ezinje Confucius, Sele imisele ithiyori eyinkimbinkimbi edibanisa umculo kunye neenkcubeko ezahlukeneyo zobomi kunye nempucuko. Baye benza izixhobo ezifanelekileyo zomzuzu ngamnye kunye nomculo ngamnye.

Ngokungafaniyo nelizwe laseNtshona, kwiTshayina yakudala oku kulandelayo kwasekwa iindidi zezixhoboKuthathelwa ingqalelo izinto eziphambili ezazenziwe ngazo: isinyithi, ilitye, isilika, uqalo, ithanga, udongwe, ulusu kunye neenkuni.

Nangona kunjalo, siya kubambelela kulwahlulo oluqhelekileyo lomoya, umtya kunye neentsimbi. Ezi zezona zixhobo zomculo zaseTshayina zimeleyo:

Izixhobo zomoya

Kulo Incwadi yeOds, incwadi yamandulo yamaTshayina enikezelwe kubugcisa bemibongo, ezinye izixhobo zomoya sele zikhankanyiwe esele zisenziwa kwaye zidlalwa kwingxilimbela yaseAsia namhlanje, phantse zonke ziyimbande kunye namalungu afana nala:

    • Ukulandelelana. Ifleyiti yemingxuma emithandathu. Kukho umahluko onemingxunya emithathu kuphela ebizwa jia. Yayidlalwa ukutolika imvelaphi yomculo ngexesha lesidlo kunye nemikhosi yomkhosi.
    • Huluzi. Esinye sezixhobo zomculo zaseTshayina ezinomdla. Yenziwe ngeepali ezintathu zoqalo kunye nomthi osisikwere osebenza njengebhodi enesandi. Isiqu se-bamboo esiphakathi sinemingxunya yokuvelisa amanqaku ahlukeneyo.
    • Jiao. Ityhubhu ende yobhedu enesandi esifana nesekona.
    • Sheng. Isixhobo somoya esintsonkothileyo esenziwe siseti yemibhobho yoqalo enobude obahlukeneyo obekwe kwisangqa kwisangqa. Kwakudlalwa (kwaye isiko lisahleli nanamhlanje) emitshatweni nasemingcwabeni.
    • ISuona. I «oboe yaseTshayina», ixhaphake kakhulu kwilizwe lonke. Limile okwexilongo elide kakhulu.
    • Xiao. Ifluti yemveli enemingxuma emi nkqo. Yahlukile kwi-Dizi ngomlomo wayo obhalwe "V" ngenxa yesandi sayo esimnandi. Umahluko uchazwe kakuhle kwividiyo engentla.
    • Xun. Ujikeleze udongwe ngodongwe ocarina.

Izixhobo zomtya

Izixhobo zomculo zaseTshayina zihlala zinamacandelo amabini amakhulu: ngesaphetha okanye ngaphandle. Phakathi kwezokuqala, sigxininisa oku kulandelayo:

  • Banhu, uhlobo lwevayolin enemitya emibini kunye nebhokisi yomthi yesandi. Kuqhelekile emantla elizwe kwaye kudlalwa ngababini.
  • U-Erhu. Ifana neBanhu, kodwa ngaphandle kwebhodi yesandi. Kukho okwahlukileyo okubizwa gaohu ekhupha izandi eziphezulu kunye nenye enegama zhonghu endaweni yoko ikhuphe izandi ezinzulu.
  • UGehu. Cello enemitya emine.
  • Matouqin, ivayolin eyaziwayo yaseTshayina enomqala omde kunye necala elinentloko-ehashe.
China ezineentambo

Umfazi waseTshayina odlala umpu

Ke zona iintambo ezineentambo ngaphandle kwesaphetha, sizifumana ziziindidi ezimbini: nkqo kwaye tye. Phakathi kwezona zisetyenziswa ngokwesiko e-China zezi:

  • Dongbula, Umtya o-XNUMX.
  • Duxianqin. Umtya onentambo enye onomdla.
  • Gunqin, i-classical yaseTshayina isixhenxe-imitya citara. Njengazo zonke izixhobo kusapho lwayo, ihlala idlalwa nge-plectrum, elingana nengcongolo kumagitala aseNtshona.
  • Kong Kong, uhlobo lwehadi laseTshayina elidlalwa ngokubetha imitya ngobunono.
  • IPipa, lute olawulwa ngemitya emine.
  • URuan, lute ngokumila kwenyanga ecekeceke.
  • Sanxian, oval omqolo onemigca emithathu.
  • Yangqin. Uhadi olukhulu kunye nemitya emininzi kune konghou.

Izixhobo zomculo

Zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kumacandelo omculo we Opera yemveli yamaTshayina, kunye nesingqisho okanye isiseko sokudibana ngokwenziwa kwendabuko eyahlukeneyo. Zihlala zihlelwe zibe ngamaqela iindidi ezimbini: inowuthi esisigxina kunye inow bume. Izixhobo zomculo zaseTshayina ezaziwa kakhulu zezi zilandelayo:

Umculo waseTshayina

Igubu lesiTshayina eliqhelekileyo

  • Ukuvalwa. Uhlobo lwe-bamboo clapper, nangona kukho iimodeli ezifanayo zomthi.
  • Bo, amacangci amancinci ebhedu angqubanayo ukuze anikele umculo omnandi.
  • Dingyingdangu. Igubu elizinzileyo elibethwa ngentonga enye.
  • Gu. Igubu eliphindwe kabini elalisetyenziswa njengesixhobo semfazwe. Abo badlala esi sixhobo bahlala besinxiba entanyeni ngentambo kwaye basebenzise amagubu amabini ukufezekisa isandi.
  • I-Ling okanye intsimbi encinci.
  • Luó, eyaziwa ngcono eNtshona njenge «gong». Yipleyiti enkulu yesinyithi emiswe nkqo exhonywe kwisakhiwo esimile okwe-arch ngentambo. Isizathu sokuba unqunyanyisiwe kukuphumeza isandi esikhulu ngakumbi nesingapheliyo.
  • UPaigu. Iseti yamadubhu amancinci, phakathi kweeyunithi ezintathu ukuya kwezixhenxe, zonke ezinobukhulu obahlukeneyo kunye nezandi.
  • Yunghuo. Iseti yeekhonksi ezincinci eziboshwe kwisakhelo esinye.

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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