Iinkulungwane ezilishumi zePrague

Esinye sezixeko ezintle eYurophu EPrague, ikomkhulu leRiphabhlikhi yaseCzech. Yisixeko esinembali eninzi kuba ezinye zezehlo ezibaluleke kakhulu eYurophu zinezahluko zazo apha.

Leyo mbali yiyo eyinikeze iprofayili eyingqayizivele neyamangalisa ngokwenene. Iinkulungwane zokwakha Banokubonakala kwizitrato zasePrague kwaye siza kuthetha ngayo kwinqaku lanamhlanje.

Prague, isixeko

AmaCelt babengabantu bokuqala ukuhlala apha ngendlela ezinzileyo, kamva amaJamani namaSlav afika. IPrague yasekwa ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Ookumkani baseBohemia benza iPrague isihlalo soburhulumente babo kwaye uninzi lwala magunya alugqwesayo lwangumlawuli oyiNgcwele waseRoma.

Prague lakhula kakhulu kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX ngethuba uKumkani uCharles IV esandisa isixeko ngezakhiwo ezitsha kumacala omabini eVltava, saza sazibandakanya nabo ngokwakha ibhulorho. Ukuya kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX iBohemia yadlulela ezandleni zeHabsburgs kwaye ke iPrague yaba liphondo lase-Austrian.

Emva kweMfazwe yeminyaka engama-30, isixeko saqhubeka nokukhula kwezoqoqosho kwaye loo bonanza yaguqulelwa kutshintsho loyilo. Ke iimfazwe ezimbini zehlabathi zaziza kuza kwaye Tshikoslovakiya, phantsi kwenqanaba leSoviet. Ekugqibeleni, ngo-1989 iPrague yathi ndlela-ntle kubusoshiyali, ekubeni liziko elibizwa ngokuba yiVelvet Revolution.

ICzechoslovakia yanyamalala kwimephu kwaye kwazalwa amazwe amabini: iCzech Republic neSlovakia. IPrague ibilikomkhulu lakudala ukusukela oko.

Uyilo lwezakhiwo ePrague

Ngale mali yeenkulungwane zobomi inyani yileya IPrague inoyilo oluhle nolwahlukeneyo, de iindlela ezininzi ezihlala kunye. Kwaye nanjengoko ingesiso isixeko esikhulu, kufanelekile ukuba uyihlolisise kwaye uhambe ngeenyawo, uncoma le ndimbane yezakhiwo.

Singathetha malunga noku kulandelayo Izitayile zoyilo ePrague: iRomanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Classical and Imperial, Historicist, Moorish Revival, Art-Noveau, Cubism and Rondocubism, Functionalist and Communist.

Uyilo lwaseRoma ePrague

Igama lamaRoma lisixelela ukuba olu lwakhiwo lunento yokwenza namaRoma kwaye yayiyindlela eyamiselwa eYurophu kwi-Middle Ages, ngokucacileyo iphefumlelwe mandulo.

Uyilo lwamaRoma lungumxube wezitayile zaseRoma naseByzantine kwaye lubonakaliswa ngu Iingqameko, iikholamu ezimbejembeje, iinqaba ezinamandla nezomeleleyo, iindonga ezibanzi kunye nezitrato eziwela. Izakhiwo ke ngoko zilula kwaye ziyalingana.

Luluphi uyilo lwamaRoma olukhoyo ePrague? Ewe ikhona IRotunda yoMnqamlezo oyiNgcwele, ukusukela ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, kwidolophu yakudala. Enye i-rotunda, isakhiwo setyhula, yile I-San Martin, indala esixekweni Ivela kwixesha likaVratislav I. Ivela kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwaye ivula kuphela ngexesha leenkonzo zonqulo.

Kukho i- Rotunda yaseSt. Longinus, kwisitalato iStepanska kunye naseCaweni yaseSan Stepan. Yeyona rotunda incinci esixekweni kwaye isusela kwisiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Sine I-Basilica yaseSaint GeorgeNangona inezinto ezithile zeebaroque ezongezwe kuyo ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, kodwa igcina ingaphakathi elimangalisayo nelikhulu.

Uyilo lweGothic ePrague

Njengoko besesitshilo apha ngasentla, isimbo saseRoma saba yiGothic eFrance ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Emva kwexesha yandiswa kulo lonke elaseYurophu de kwaba yinkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ukuba nemvuselelo ethile ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Olu hlobo lubonakaliswa ngu Iingqameko ezichongiweyo, iglasi enemibala emibalabala, igumbi elinombambo kunye neendawo eziphakamayo. Isitayile esibonwa kakhulu kwiicawa kwaye kamva kwiiyunivesithi. Ithetha ngobungangamsha bukaThixo nolwazi.

EPrague sibona isimbo seGothic kuqala kwifayile ye- UCharles Bridge, intle, isandula ukubuyiselwa. Kukho ifayile ye Icawa yaseSt. Vitus, eyagunyaziswa nguCharles IV ngo-1344, yaza yaphefumlelwa ngamabhishophu amakhulu aseFransi, kunye Icawa yoMama wethu ngaphambi kweTyn. Le nkonzo iphakathi kwidolophu endala kwaye iyamangalisa, ngakumbi ebusuku. Yakhiwa ngo-1365 ngemali evela kubarhwebi baseJamani.

Kukho i- Inqaba yePowder I-65 yeemitha ukuphakama, eyakhiwe nguMatous Rejsek ngo-1475. Ime ekuqaleni kwendlela yeCoronation kwaye inesidima. Ilandelwa ngu Indibano yeSan Agnes de Bohemia, eyasekwa ngu-Princess Agenes wePremyslid ngo-1231. Injalo esona sakhiwo sidala sePothue kwaye yayingowomthetho waseFranciscan. Ikwasebenza njengesixhobo sokufihla ubukumkani.

La Indlu yentsimbi Kukwi-Old Town Square kwaye ngomnye umzekelo omhle weGothic ePrague. Yakhiwa ngenkulungwane ye-80 kwaye yabuyiselwa ngokupheleleyo kwi-XNUMXs yekhulu lama-XNUMX.

Uyilo loKuhlaziya lwakudala ePrague

Ukwakhiwa kwezakhiwo ze-Renaissance kwaphuhliswa phakathi kokuqala kwekhulu le-XNUMX kunye nekhulu le-XNUMX. UFlorence nedome yayo yimizekelo. Le ndlela isasazeka e-Italiya kuqala yaza yaya eFrance, eJamani nakwamanye amazwe angabamelwane, de yafikelela naseRashiya.

I-Renaissance yoyilo izisa iinkcubeko zamaGrike nezamaRoma ukuze ibuyela kulungelelwaniso, ijiyometri kunye ubukhulu yelo xesha. Njani? Sebenzisa iintsika, izindlu, iinyithi, iikholamu kunye neefrescoes.

EPrague isimbo sobuNtshatsheli sinokubonwa kwifayile ye- Ibhotwe laseRoyal Summer, wathunywa nguFerdinando I ngo-1538 ngenxa yomfazi wakhe, uKumkanikazi u-Anne Igumbi lomdlaloKuseRoyal Gardens, esusela phakathi kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMXth. I-Tennis kunye ne-badmington zidlalwe apha, ubuncinci kwiifom zabo zamandulo. Omnye umzekelo yi- Ibhotwe laseSchwarzenberg, eHradcanske Square, emnyama nomhlophe kuyo yonke i-facade yayo.

El Iholide yeNdlu yeBhotwe Olunye ulwakhiwo lwe-Renaissance, olulinganayo kakuhle, kunye ne Indlu yeNgcaciso, Kwibala leedolophu elidala. Inobuhle obuhle obuhonjiswe ngemizobo evela kwiintsomi zamaGrike kunye nezinye izingqinisiso zeBhayibhile ngokunjalo. Isusela ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwaye kukholelwa ukuba yayiyivenkile yecuba.

Uyilo lweBaroque ePrague

Uhlobo lwe-baroque lwazalwa ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yeshumi elinesixhenxe e-Italiya kwaye lakhula lihambisana nobuKatolika noRhulumente. Olu hlobo Ibonakaliswa yimifanekiso eqingqiweyo eneentyatyambo, imibala emininzi, ukukhanya, izithunzi, imizobo, iifresco ezimibalabala kunye negolide eninzi. Izidwangube zase-Italiya kunye necawa ziyayinyusa le ndlela, ngoko ke ibonakalisa amandla nobutyebi.

EPrague olu hlobo lubonakala kwifayile ye- Icawa yoMama wethu Wokunqoba, Yakhiwa ngamaLuthere amaJamani ngo-1613. Yadlulela kwizandla zamaKarmele ngo-1620. I-monasteri yestrahov Kusentabeni kwaye yindawo yesibini yeemonki edolophini. Ibuyela kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwaye iyamangalisa, indawo enoxolo kwaye intle.

Kukho i- Icawa yaseSan Nicolás, kunye nedome enkulu, ukususela ngekhulu le-XNUMX. Inkqubo ye- IChateau Troja Ijikelezwe ziigadi ezintle nezidiliya ezindala. Yakhiwe ngemali yosapho olutyebileyo lwaseSternnberg kwaye ngekhe uphoswe. ILoreta Ivela kwi-1626 kwaye yayisazi ukuba sezandleni zeemonki zaseCapuchin. Yayikade iyindawo yokuhambela abanye kwaye ineefresco ezintle.

El Ibhotwe laseSternberg KukuHradcanske Square ifihlwe ngasemva kwebhotwe lika-Archbishop. Emva kwamasango amakhulu esinyithi eli litye leBaroque lakhiwa ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Uyilo lweRococo ePrague

URococo owazalwa ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX Kwilizwekazi laseYurophu kunye nohlobo lwayo lwamva nje ifaka izinto zaseFrance. Igama ngumanyano lwe ibharokho IsiTaliyane ngegama lesiFrentshi rockeries, iqokobhe. Ke esi sitayile sityebile kumagophe amdaka, imihombiso egcweleyo, ii-tapestries, iizipili, izinto zokuzoba, imizobo ...

EPrague ufumana isimbo se-rococo kwifayile ye- Ibhotwe lika-Archbishop yakhiwa ngenkulungwane ye-1420, ithatha indawo yesakhiwo esidala se-rococo esitsha ngo-XNUMX. Inkulu, imhlophe kwaye inyanzelisa. Kukho i- Ibhotwe laseKinsky, kunye ne-stucco facade epinki emhlophe entle Yakhiwa phakathi kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Uyilo lobugcisa nolwasebukhosini ePrague

Olu hlobo lubonakaliswa ngokuba inyanzelisa kwaye yajika uphawu lwezakhiwo zikawonkewonke kwihlabathi liphela, ukuthatha isitayile esimnandi seRococo. Kwakuyindlela yokuziqhayisa, ngqondweni, ngakumbi kwicala labantu noRhulumente kunakwizidwangube okanye ngabefundisi.

EPrague siyibona ibonakala kwifayile ye- IPrague State Theatre, kunye neentsika zayo, iphalethi yayo elula kunye neendonga zayo zipeyintwe ngombala oluhlaza. Apha uMozart ngokwakhe wayalela imisebenzi yakhe.

Uyilo lwembali ePrague

Imbali kuyilo kunye nobugcisa yi buyela kwixesha elidlulileyo, Kwiklasikhi nangona kuthintiwe ezinye izitayile ngokunjalo. Ayibonwa kakuhle, kuba uyilo kufanele ukuba lujonge phambili hayi ngasemva, kodwa isatsho ngoku ePrague.

Phi? Kwi IMyuziyam kaZwelonke ePrague, eqala ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, eWenceslas Square, Iqonga lesizwe ukusukela kwangelo xesha linye, ingaphakathi le KwiNdlu yeOpera yeLizwe, ukususela ngo-1888, IHanavsky Pavilion, e-Lena Park, eyakhiwe ngo-1891 kunye nesimbo se-baroque esineentsimbi ezininzi.

Kukho i- Icawa yaseSan Pedro kunye neSan Pablo, kwinqaba yaseVysehrad, i-neo-Gothic, kunye neenqaba ezimbini zokujikeleza kunye Icawa yaseNgcwele uLudmila, kunye ne-facade enomdla.

Imvuselelo yamaMoor ePrague

Ngexesha elithile kwintlangano yamaRoma, iYurophu yathandana nesitayela saseMpuma, ngakumbi ngekhulu le-XNUMX.

Ngeli xesha izakhiwo ezininzi zazakhiwe ngendlela yokuvuselela amaMoor, kwaye kwimeko yasePrague sizibona kwi Isinagoge laseSpain ye-1868, esekwe kwiAlhambra kunye Isinagoge leNtlokoma 1906.

Uyilo lweArt-Nouveau ePrague

Indlela endiyithandayo, ndimele nditsho ukuba, ibonakalisiwe kwiindawo ezininzi: ubucwebe, impahla, ifanitshala, izakhiwo ... ePrague sibona olu hlobo luhle Indlu kaMasipala yowe-1911 Ihotele iEvropa KwiWenceslas Square, eyakhiwe ngo-1889, i Ihotele eParis Ngo-1904 kunye Isakhiwo saseWilsonova kwisikhululo sikaloliwe.

Kukho i Ibhotwe Lemizi-mveliso, Eyokuqala izakhiwo zentsimbi kula mazwe, ibhotwe lokwenene lenziwe ngeglasi kunye nentsimbi ukusukela ngonyaka we-1891. Okokugqibela, kwisimbo seArt-Nouveau Indlu yezihloko, phambi kweTheatre kaZwelonke kunye Isikhululo sikaloliwe saseVysehrad, isitishi esishiyiweyo ebesikade siqaqambile, i Iqonga leVinohrady, la I-Villa Saloun, i Ipaseji yeKoruna okanye Villa Bilek esebenza namhlanje njengeGalari kaMasipala.

ICubist kunye neRondocubist yoyilo

ICubism ihamba kunye UPaul Cezanne kwaye isukela kwiminyaka elishumi yokuqala yenkulungwane yamashumi amabini. Iityhubhu, izikimu, isitayile I-Picassokanye ngokukodwa, yile nto malunga nale ndlela. Ayinakulinganiselwa kwilizwe elinye kwaye ngaphakathi kweCzechs singakhumbula abazobi uEmil Fila okanye uJosef Capek kunye nabayili bezakhiwo ezahlukeneyo kunye nabachweli abashiye uphawu lwabo esixekweni.

Ke, ngaphakathi kolu hlobo kukho Indlu yeMadonna eMnyama, zekhonkrithi eyomeleleyo, eyakhiwe phakathi kuka-1911 no-1912 Villa Kovarović, indawo ekuya kuyo abafundi bokwakha. Kukho kwakhona iposti yesibane se cubist, kuphela emhlabeni, kwikona yeWenceslas Square kunye Ibhotwe laseAdria, i Ibhanki yeLegio, ngakumbi rondocubist.

Uyilo olusebenzayo ePrague

Esi sitayile sithi isakhiwo kufuneka sivumelane nokusetyenziswa kwaso, ekusebenzeni kwaso, ke sibonakaliswa ngu imigca ecacileyo kunye neenkcukacha ezincinci okanye ezingenantos kunye nomhombiso.

Kwisitayile sokusebenza yi Villa Muller, i I-Veletrzni Palace, iSakhiwo seManeses Ngo-1930, i Icawa yaseSt, ukusukela ngeminyaka yee-30, kunye IBarrandov Terrace, kumlambo iVltava, nangona okulusizi ngokushiywa ngokuphandle. Yayiyindawo yokutyela ngo-1929, inephuli yokudada, iibhalkhoni ...

Uyilo lwamaKomanisi ePrague

Ekugqibeleni, siza Ixesha lesoviet ukusuka ePrague. Ubukomanisi bunendlela yayo: enkulu, ngwevu, ikhonkrithi. Mhle kakubi.

EPrague siyibona kwifayile ye- isakhiwo sangaphambili sePalamente, ezisusela kwiminyaka yoo-60, i Indawo yokutyela 58, eLetna Park, Ihotele Crown Plaza ukusuka 50, i tIvenkile yesebe laseKotva, ukusukela ngo-1975 ukuya kutsho Zizkov TV Tower Ukuphakama kweemitha ezingama-216 kwakhiwa phakathi kowe-1985 nowe-1992, kwaye Iipaneli, izakhiwo ezinkulu ezakhiwe ngaphandle kwedolophu kwaye zikhuthazwe nguLe Corbusier.

Emva kokuwa kobuKomanisi, kuncinci kakhulu okwakhiwe ngaphakathi ePrague, kodwa ndicinga ukuba ngeendlela ezininzi ezisasazeke esixekweni, nawuphi na umthandi wembali, ubugcisa kunye noyilo kuyakuba neeyure zokuhamba ziqinisekisiwe.


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