Amafaro abaluleke kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo

Abu Simbel

Ithempeli likaRamses II e-Abu Simbel

Opharao ababaluleke kakhulu baseGibhithe lasendulo ikakhulu banesibopho sokuthandwa yimpucuko esenayo emhlabeni wonke namuhla. Kubona kubo imisebenzi emikhulu kakhulu esilondolozayo njengamanje nokuthi umhlaba wakho ulondoloze konke okuphelele i-aura yemfihlakalo nomlingo.

Futhi ukuthi ngisho nezazi eziphambili zaseGibhithe lasendulo azikwazanga ukuchaza ukuthi impucuko yeNayile ingayakha kanjani imisebenzi yayo emihle yokwakha nobunjiniyela ngaphansi kokubusa kwalawo makhosi lapho amanye amasiko amaningi ayeseshiye I-Neolithic. Uma ufuna ukubazi kangcono laba balingisi abangajwayelekile, sikumema ukuthi usilandele ohambweni lwamaharahara abaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni. IGibhithe lasendulo.

Opharao ababaluleke kunabo bonke baseGibhithe lasendulo, kusuka ku-Djoser kuya eCleopatra

Opharao baqondisa ikusasa leGibhithe lasendulo esikhathini eside seminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezintathu okubandakanya amakhosi ahlukahlukene. Babengabalingiswa abangcwele noma, okungenani, babebhekwa njengezizukulwane zonkulunkulu abanjengo Horus o Ra. Kodwa-ke, kwaba sekufeni lapho, kwahlanganiswa khona Osiris, bafinyelela esigabeni sangempela saphezulu. Kepha, ngaphandle kokuqhubeka, asihlangane nabadume kakhulu kubo.

Zoser, umbhali wepiramidi lokuqala elilondoloziwe

Lo pharao, owaziwa nangokuthi I-Necherjet nokuthi wabusa phakathi kuka-2665 no-2645 BC, akadumile njengalezo zakamuva. Kepha, uma sikhuluma nawe mayelana Imhotep, mhlawumbe uzozibeka kangcono. Kuthunyelwe owokuqala, owesibili wakha i- iphiramidi yesinyathelo seSaqqara, eningizimu yeMemphis, inhloko-dolobha yombuso wakhe.

Ebizwa nangokuthi iphiramidi elinyathelwe i-Djoser ngenxa yokwakheka kwayo, lasebenza njengesibonelo sezakhiwo zaseGiza zakamuva nawo wonke amanye amaphiramidi akamuva. Futhi i-Imhotep ibhekwa njenge- umakhi wokuqala omkhulu emlandweni.

IPhiramidi laseSaqqara

Iphiramidi yesinyathelo seSaqqara

Cheops, owokuqala phakathi kwamaharahara abaluleke kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo

Impela ufaro owayene- IPhiramidi Elikhulu laseGiza sekudlule isikhashana futhi sekuvele kubaluleke ngempela. Futhi kubizwa Khufu, wabusa ikusasa laseGibhithe phakathi konyaka ka-2589 no-2566 ngaphambi kukaJesu Kristu. Ngokomlando, ubenedumela lokuba nguzwilakhe, lapho umGreki anikele khona ngamandla UHerodotus, isazi-mlando esingaqinile.

Kunoma ikuphi, ukusishiya njengefa uPhiramidi Omkhulu waseGiza kwenza ezinye izinto. Hhayi ize, ukuphela kwayo Izimangaliso Eziyisikhombisa Zomhlaba lasendulo esinalo namuhla futhi futhi nembhoshongo omkhulu kunayo yonke yokuthi mangaki akhiwa eGibhithe lasendulo.

Kukholakala ukuthi ubuhlakani obubhekele ukuyikhulisa kwakungumakhi I-Hemiunu, ngaleso sikhathi okwakukhona futhi i- ukuxoxa noma imantshi yokuqala ngemuva kukaFaro uqobo. Futhi ubukhulu bomsebenzi wakhe buzokunika umbono weqiniso lokuthi kwakuyisakhiwo eside kunazo zonke emhlabeni kuze kube ngekhulu le-XNUMX emva kukaKristu, lapho sadlulwa inhlokodolobha yaseLincoln Cathedral, eGreat Britain.

Ku Umnyuziyamu waseGibhithe eCairo ungabona ukumelwa kwamaCheops. Yisifanekiso esincane sezinyo lendlovu esatholakala ngumvubukuli waseNgilandi uFlinders Petrie e Abydos, obizwa ngokuthi iDolobha Elingcwele lika-Osiris.

UKhafre, umlandeli ofanelekile

Ndodana kaCheops, lo pharao akunakushiwo ukuthi ubeke ubaba wakhe endaweni embi. Ngoba wayengagcini nje ngokwakha iphiramidi yakhe, kepha futhi nowaziwayo I-sphinx enhle, esinye sezimpawu ezinkulu zeGibhithe lasendulo.

UKhafre ubuse phakathi kweminyaka ka-2547 no-2521 futhi, uma kungokwenani elikhulu loko asinikeze kona, kufanele abekwe phakathi koFaro ababaluleke kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, futhi sinokubonakaliswa kwakhe: the isithombe esihleliwe sikaJafra, ongabona futhi kufayela le- Umnyuziyamu waseGibhithe eCairo.

IGreat Sphinx

I-Sphinx enkulu nePiramidi yaseJaffra

UTuthmosis III, umnqobi

UFaro wethu omkhulu olandelayo akazange agqame kangako ngokukhathazeka kwakhe okwakhayo ngesifiso sakhe sokunqoba. Empeleni, wenza imikhankaso eminingi kakhulu enqamula izindawo zanamuhla zeLebanon, iSyria, nePalestine kangangokuba, ngesikhathi sokubusa kwakhe, uMbuso WaseGibhithe wawuthola isandiso sendawo esiphezulu.

UTuthmosis III wabusa kusukela ngo-1479 kuya ku-1425 BC futhi, esikhundleni sokwakha amathempeli, wabhekana nokuvuselela nokwandisa akhona. Kodwa-ke, ukweleta abakhulu abayisikhombisa Ama-obarniski aseKarnak. Ithuna lakhe latholakala endaweni engenakuqhathaniswa Isigodi Senkosi.

U-Amenophis III

Njengokwangaphambilini, kwakungeka- Ubukhosi Besi-XNUMX baseGibhithe futhi wabusa phakathi kuka-1390 no-1353 ngaphambi kukaJesu Kristu. Ukubusa kwakhe kwakukude futhi kuyimpumelelo, ngoba wayazi ukuthi angakusebenzisa kanjani ukunqoba kwalabo ababengaphambi kwakhe ukuze agcine isikhundla sobukhosi endaweni.

Wayengumakhi omkhulu futhi. Phakathi kwemisebenzi ayiphakamisile, okusha ithempeli laseThebes o EzikaSoleb, eNubia. Kuma-mausoleum akhe kuphela okuthiwa IColossi yaseMemnon, izithombe ezinkulu ezinkulu ezihleli, ngayinye ingamamitha ayishumi nesishiyagalombili ukuphakama.

U-Amenhotep IV noma u-Akhenaten, obizwa ngoFaro Wobuqili

Indodana yalowo owedlule, wabusa phakathi konyaka we-1353 nowe-1336. Ungene emlandweni ngegama lesidlaliso likaFaro Heretic ngoba wasungula inkolo eyodwa ka-Aten, okwakungeyona enye ngaphandle kwelanga.

Njengokungathi lokho kwakunganele, wahambisa inhlokodolobha yombuso we I-Tebas a I-Ajetaton, i-Amarna yamanje, lapho akha khona amathempeli amakhulu enzelwe inkolo entsha ngengcebo ethathwe kubapristi abadala. Kepha lokhu futhi kwasho inguquko kwezobuciko. Kuze kube yileso sikhathi, isithombe sezithombe zobuciko baseGibhithe siveza onkulunkulu njengabantu. Kepha ngo-Amenhotep IV ubuciko obudluliselwe emndenini wobukhosi.

I-Akhenaten

I-Akhenaten bust

Futhi nathi kufanele sikhulume nawe ngalokhu, ngoba umkaFaro wayedume kakhulu Nefertiti lokho kuvele kaningi kumabhayisikobho nasemanovelini. Owesifazane omuhle njengoba enesiphiwo sokubusa, ezinye izazi-mlando ze-paleo zikholelwa ukuthi wayenguye Semenejkara ukuthi wabusa noFaro uqobo kuqala futhi wedwa kamuva. Ukubuyela esihlokweni sobuciko, ngokunembile i- INefertiti bust Ingesinye sezithombe ezaziwa kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo.

Njengombusi, u-Akhenaten, ngosizo lukaNefertiti, wenza lonke ushintsho esikutshele ngalo futhi olwaziwa njenge Amarna Revolution. Ngalo, wahlanganisa amandla obukhosi alwa nalawo abapristi abakhulu futhi isikhathi sakhe sasingeso sempumelelo yombuso.

UTutankhamun, omncane kunabo bonke phakathi kwamaharahara abaluleke kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo

Wayeyindodana yowayengaphambi komkakhe kodwa kaMeketaton, udadewabo, ngokusho kwemithombo ethile, noma ngomunye wababekazi bakhe, ngokusho kwabanye. Ubuse ikusasa laseGibhithe phakathi kuka-1334 no-1325, ikakhulukazi ehlehlisa okwenziwe nguyise.

Ubizwa iNkosi Yengane, ubuyisele i- inkolo yezithixo eziningi ibuyisela amandla amaningi kubapristi. Uphinde wabuyisela inhlokodolobha ku I-Tebas. Kepha ubuyise nengxenye enhle yamatshe esikhumbuzo abonakele esigabeni sangaphambilini esineziyaluyalu.

UTutankhamun kungenzeka angabi phakathi kwamaharahara abaluleke kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo, kepha ngokungangabazeki nguyena odume kakhulu. Ukutholakala kwengcwaba lakhe elicishe liphelele ngo UHoward Carter futhi isiqalekiso okucatshangwa ukuthi siwele kubo bonke ababambe iqhaza ekutholeni simenze waba ngumlingiswa ozungezwe i-aura yasenganekwaneni. Ukusuka lapho kuye kumabhayisikobho nasezincwadini kunesinyathelo esisodwa futhi iNgane King ibonakale kumafilimu namanoveli amaningi.

Tutankhamen

UTutankhamun eLuxor

URamses II, iNkosi Yomakhi

Ubhekwa njengofaro ngokubusa okude kakhulu, njengoba wabusa iminyaka engama-66 (kusukela ngo-1279 kuya ku-1213 BC). Kungenzeka futhi ukuthi nguye owayenezingane eziningi, njengoba zilinganiselwa cishe kwikhulu.

Kepha yaziwa nangokuthi yi- inkosi yomakhi ngenani elikhulu lamathempeli abukekayo ayewakhile. Phakathi kwabo, i-mausoleum yakhe, i- URamesseum, esigodini samaKhosi, noma amathempeli adumile akha Abu Simbel. Kepha uRamses II wadlulela phambili. Wakha inhlokodolobha entsha sha yombuso osempumalanga yomfula iNayile I-Pi-Ramses Aa-najtu noma iDolobha LaseRamses. Ekugcineni, igama loMfazi Omkhulu Wasebukhosini nalo lizwakala lijwayelekile kuwe: Nefertari, elihumusha ngokuthi "lapho ilanga likhanya khona."

UCleopatra VII, owabeka uMbuso WaseRoma

Lapho efika esihlalweni sobukhosi ngonyaka wama-51 BC, ubuhanguhangu bomhlaba kwasekuvele kungokwakhe amaRom. Kodwa-ke, lona wesifazane onamandla wenza konke okusemandleni ukuvikela iGibhithe, elalingasekho ebusheni balo, ezandleni zamaLatin.

Ngaphandle kokungabaza, idume kakhulu kunabo bonke ababephethe isikhundla sikaFaro. Ubudlelwano bakho no UMarco Antonio futhi nge UJulius Khesari bakhiphe amabhayisikobho amaningi. Ngobulungiswa UCesarion, indodana ayenayo neyesibili, yayizomlandela esihlalweni sobukhosi ngegama lika UPtolemy XVYize yayifanekisela ngaphezu kwanoma yini enye, kusukela lapho uCleopatra efa, iGibhithe laba yisifundazwe saseRoma.

I-Red Chapel yaseKarnak

I-Red Chapel yaseKarnak

Ngokusobala, uCleopatra wayengowesifazane ongajwayelekile owayekwazi ukusetha inethiwekhi yezokuxhumana, ehola amabutho asolwandle futhi ebhala nezincwadi zezokwelapha nezincwadi zezilimi.

Ekuphetheni, labo esikukhombise bona bangabanye bamaharahara abaluleke kakhulu eGibhithe lasendulo. Kubo sikweleta izikhumbuzo eziningi ezinkulu zomhlaba wasendulo kanye namagugu empucuko enkulu kakhulu ethuthukile ngesikhathi sayo. Kodwa-ke, kwakukhona nabanye ababevelele njengabo. Ngokwesibonelo, Isikhathi, esikweleta iphiramidi yesithathu yasethafeni laseGiza; Amenemhat I, umakhi wenkimbinkimbi I-Lisht nombhali wemisebenzi yezincwadi, noma indlovukazi-ufaro Hatshepsut, owandulela uCleopatra nokuthi ngubani owayalela i- Ithempeli laseDeir-el-Bahari futhi i I-Red Chapel kaKarnak. Awucabangi ukuthi lezo zalezi zinhlamvu ziyimilando yokuphila ejabulisayo?


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