Ilayisi eChina

Uma sicabanga ngelayisi, sicabanga ngeChina. Ilayisi ne-china banobudlelwano beminyaka eyizinkulungwane nobusondelene. Akungabazeki ukuthi kuyisisekelo sokudla, kepha ngabe kukhona owaziyo kabanzi ngalokhu okusanhlamvu okubonakala kungukudla okuphezulu komhlaba, okwazi ukondla izigidi zabantu?

Ikhuliswa kanjani, ikhiqizwa kangakanani, kudliwa amakhilogremu amangaki ngomuntu ngamunye, ilayisi selibe likhulu kangakani kumasiko amaShayina? Konke lokho nokuningi, esihlokweni sethu namuhla.

Umsuka nezici zerayisi

Kuyinto a okusanhlamvu, okusanhlamvu okwesibili okukhiqizwa kakhulu emhlabeni ngemuva kommbila. Lesi sitshalo, esomndeni wotshani, sinezimpande ezinhle nezinemicu, isiqu esiyindilinga esinamafindo nama-internode, esinamaqabunga e-sheathing ahlukile kanye nezimbali eziluhlaza kuya ezimhlophe.

Kunezinhlobo eziningi zelayisi, izinhlobo ezingaphezu kwenkulungwane eziphakathi kwamaqembu amakhulu amabili noma ama-subspecies: inhlobonhlobo ye-japonica etshalwa ezindaweni ezishisayo nasezindaweni ezipholile, enesitashi esiningi, nezinhlobonhlobo ze-indica ezikhuliswa ezindaweni ezishisayo.

Bese kuba khona okusanhlamvu okufishane, okusanhlamvu okuphakathi, okusanhlamvu okude, okusendle, irayisi okusanhlamvu okuphelele futhi kungabhekwa njengokudla okumuncu, okunephunga elimnandi nelinombala, futhi ngokwezimboni, kunerayisi elibilisiwe nelayisi elisheshayo.

Ilayisi eChina

Ukulima ilayisi eChina kubuyela emuva ngesikhathi, kukhulunywa ngezinye Iminyaka eyizinkulungwane eziyi-10 mhlawumbe, ngesikhathi soMbusi odumile uShennong. Kamuva, impucuko yaseChina yanda ngasemfuleni iYangtze, nesimo sezulu esikahle sokulima irayisi.

Ekuqaleni, abacebile kuphela ababengadla irayisi, kodwa kamuva, ezikhathini zobukhosi bakwaHan kwaba isidlo esidumile sansuku zonke. Iqiniso ukuthi impumelelo yelayisi yilokho ngaphandle kwakho konke kulula ukugcina nokupheka, futhi uma ihlanganiswa nenye yakudala yase-Asia, ubhontshisi, iba yisisekelo sokudla.

Ngakho, impumelelo noma ukwehluleka kokulinywa kwelayisi bekuyilokhu futhi kuseyisihluthulelo sempilo yesizwe. Konke kungaholela esiswini esigcwele noma indlala esabekayo futhi konke lokhu sekuvele kwenzeka kubantu baseChina ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Ngakho-ke, ubuchwepheshe obusetshenzisiwe ekutshalweni kwelayisi nakho kuye kwaba futhi kubalulekile. Ikakhulukazi lokho okuphathelene nokunisela komhlaba ukugcina izinga lamanzi emasimini, abizwa ngokuthi amasimu elayisi. Ilayisi lidinga amanzi amaningi ukuze likhule futhi lesi sitshalo sibekezelela ukukhula okukhulu kanjena, kakhulu kakhulu kunezinye. Ukunisela kusetshenziswa kuma-90% wensimu yelayisi ukukhulisa.

Ngokuvamile ukujula kwensimu yelayisi kungamasentimitha ayi-15 futhi izinga lamanzi belilawulwa ngamaphampu ezinyawo kusukela ezikhathini zobukhosi beNgoma. Lezi zinsimu zelayisi ngokuvamile zakhiwa emathafeni, ukuze usebenzise ngokunenzuzo inani elikhulu kakhulu lobuso. Sizibonile ezithombeni nakumadokhumentari, amahle anyathela, imihlaba emincane enolayini abayindilinga abanga izintaba. Indlela ekahle yokusebenzisa imvula.

Yiqiniso, ukutshalwa kwelayisi akuyona iChina kuphela, ngoba kukhula yonke indawo lapho kungathola khona amanzi. Yebo kunjalo, U-28% welayisi lomhlaba utshalwa eChina ezigidini zamahektha omhlaba. Imbewu itshalwa ngo-Ephreli futhi ikhule ngoSepthemba, kuthi eningizimu, lapho ifudumele khona, ikhule kabili ngonyaka, phakathi kukaMashi noJuni naphakathi kukaJuni noNovemba.

Ukulima ilayisi eChina

Ilayisi ikhula kusuka enzalweni ezigcinwa zivikelekile emanzini azolile. Ngakho-ke ngemuva kwezinsuku ezingama-40 zokuba lapho badluliselwa ensimini yelayisi. Kunezingxenye zaseChina lapho kunezelwa izinhlanzi, i-carp ne-goldfish kulezi zinkundla zelayisi, ukuze zidle izinambuzane ezinganuka isivuno. Ngemuva kwalokho, kulinywa ilayisi nezinhlanzi nazo ziyadliwa.

La ukuvuna Kubandakanya ukukhipha i-paddy, ulinde ukuthi ilayisi lome, bese ulisika bese ulifaka kuma-pods. Izinhlamvu bese zihlukaniswa nesiqu bese zivunyelwa zome zodwa. Uma usomile amaqabunga ahlukaniswa notshani. Konke lokhu kwakuvame ukwenziwa ngesandla futhi bekunzima kakhulu, kodwa ngenhlanhla ngokuhamba kwesikhathi zenziwa ngomshini yize kungenzeka ukuthi ezindaweni ezithile kusenomsebenzi omningi wezandla.

Kepha Yini ukusetshenziswa kwelayisi eChina? Ngokukhethekile, irayisi elinobuthi likhula eningizimu-mpumalanga yezwe, yilayisi elinamathelayo lapho liphekwe nokuthi emaphakeji lisongwe ngamaqabunga oqalo. Empeleni, kufanele kukhunjulwe ukuthi ilayisi ngokuvamile a isithako esingathathi hlangothi ekudleni kwaseChina nokuthi ubukhona bayo buthuthukisa ubumnandi noma ukunambitheka kwezinye izitsha. Kusebenza ukugcwalisa isisu nokuthambisa amanye ama-flavour.

Isitashi esibangelwa ilayisi eliphekiwe sisetshenziswe amakhulu eminyaka ezisekelweni zezakhiwo, njengoba udaka element. Amaqabunga esitshalo asetshenziselwa ukwenza iphepha, irayisi iphepha, bese izinhlamvu zomhlabathi ziba ufulawa welayisi ukwenza ama-noodle.

Ngakho-ke ngokuyisisekelo sonke isitshalo sisebenzisa ngokunenzuzo. Ukungasho ukuthi ukuvutshelwa kwelayisi nakho kuba nemiphumela iwayini nemimoya eziningana…

Kepha kuthiwani ngebhizinisi lelayisi? Iqiniso ukuthi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi Irayisi engenisiwe eChina yehle ngentengo, ngakho-ke ukulima emhlabathini ompofu sekungancintisani.

Lo mkhuba uye washesha ngoba lowo mhlaba uyadingeka futhi ezimbonini nasezindlini, ukuze umhlaba olimekayo oyisicaba uqhubeke ngokuntuleka futhi ube mncane. Esiqongweni sokulinywa kwelayisi, maphakathi nawo-70, ilayisi lavunwa kumahektha ayizigidi ezingama-37, ukuya kuma-31 ngawo-90 futhi cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-30 eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule.

Yize kuliqiniso ukuthi irayisi liyisithako esiyisisekelo cuisine yaseChina, kwezinye izingxenye zezwe ukolweni ubaluleke kakhulu, ngokwesibonelo, enyakatho. Futhi yize irayisi lisemdleni kazwelonke, kuyiqiniso lokho ukubaluleka kwayo bekuye kwehla eminyakeni eyishumi nanhlanu edlule. Imininingwane esemthethweni ikhombisa lokho ukusetshenziswa komuntu ngamunye kwelayisi kwehlile kusuka kuma-78 kilos ngonyaka ku-1995 kuya ku-76.5 ngo-2009.

Omakhelwane abanjengoBurma, iVietnam, iCambodia noma iThailand nabo bakhiqiza irayisi futhi bathengisela eChina, ngakho-ke I-China ayigcini nje ngokuba ngumkhiqizi omkhulu kodwa nomthengi omkhulu. Futhi kuzoba njalo kakhulu ngokuzayo. Iyangenisa futhi ithumele emazweni angaphandle, yize ilayisi elithunyelwa yiChina lisezingeni eliphakathi neliphansi. Kusukela ngo-2004 uhulumeni waxhasa futhi wasusa intela kwezolimo.

I-China inkulu futhi injalo, inabantu abakhula unyaka nonyaka ababalelwa ezigidini eziyi-13, kuzodingeka ukuthi likhiqize okungenani i-20% ngaphezulu yelayisi ngo-2030. Kungale ndlela kuphela lapho izokwazi ukwanelisa izidingo zangaphakathi zokusebenzisa irayisi i-capita.

Ngeke kube lula, kukhona umhlaba ongalinywa kangako, kukhona ukushoda kwamanzi, kukhona ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu, kukhona ukusweleka kwabasebenzi, ukwanda kwesidingo sokusetshenziswa kwelayisi elisezingeni eliphakeme, kulimaze ezinye izinhlobo ... izinkinga ezinjengokuncipha kofuzo okusanhlamvu, ukukhulelwa ngokweqile, ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, iminyaka yezakhiwo zokunisela obekunakekelwa kwesinye isikhathi kepha ezingavuselelwa njalo, njll.

Leyo umlando welayisi eChina.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

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Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1.   edy lopez vazquez kusho

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