ITaiga yaseSiberia

i-taiga

ehlathini noma ihlathi le-boreal yigama elisetshenziselwa ukukhomba indawo ethile yezemvelo, leyo yehlathi elikhulu le-coniferous elinabela ezifundeni ezisenyakatho zeplanethi, emngceleni wemingcele ye-Arctic.

Igama elithi taiga lingesiRussia, noma livela ku ulimi lwe-yakuta, ekhulunywa izizwe ezahlukahlukene zaseTurkey zaseSiberia. Incazelo yalo "indawo engahlali muntu" noma "indawo yehlathi." Yize imiqondo ingabukeka yehlukile ngokokuhluka, ngokubuka komphakathi owelukayo ongumhambuma cishe bayefana.

Izizinda zomhlaba ze-taiga zithatha amazwekazi amathathu: ENyakatho Melika, Ngokukhethekile Canada, the I-Europe Yenyakatho y eSiberia, eRussia. Yilapho lezi zindawo ezingamahlathi amakhulu nezasendle zithola khona ubukhulu obukhulu. Ngokuvamile, lapho umuntu ekhuluma nge-taiga, ngaphandle kokungabaza umuntu ukhuluma nge-taiga yaseSiberia, i-taiga eyiqiniso kunazo zonke.

Leli hlathi elingapheli lihamba izinkulungwane zamakhilomitha ngaphandle kokuhlaba ikhefu (cishe ama-7.000 km ukusuka empumalanga kuya entshonalanga), linqamula ezintabeni, emathafeni nasezixhaphozini. Amanye amahlathi asemahlathini aseSiberia aphakathi kwamadala kunawo wonke emhlabeni.

I-West Siberian Taiga

La I-taiga yasentshonalanga yeSiberia Kuyihlathi elikhulu elanda ngokungaphazanyiswa phakathi kwe Izintaba zase-Ural futhi i UMfula iYenisei. Kuyihlathi elikhulu, elingakaze lisebenze elihlanganisa indawo engamakhilomitha-skwele angaba ngu-1.670.000.

Lesi sifunda sonke asihlali muntu, yize emikhawulweni eseningizimu yehlathi kunamadolobha amakhulu futhi abalulekile njenge Yekaterinburg, lapho kuhlala khona abantu abangaba ngu-300.000 100. Ngasenyakatho, ngemuva kwesiqeshana esiguqukayo esingamakhilomitha ayi-XNUMX, i-taiga idlulela ku emathafeni.

ubusika be-taiga

Ngenxa yobubanzi, i- Isimo sezulu wehlumela laseSiberia kubanda kakhulu. Yaziwa njengesimo sezulu esibusayo, esibonakala ngamahlobo amafushane, omile kakhulu nobusika obude nobunzima. Isilinganiso samazinga okushisa ehlobo awavami ukudlula ku-18-19º C, kepha ebusika ehlela ku -30º C. Imvula emaphakathi ingu-450-500 mm ngonyaka.

Phakathi kwezindawo ezibaluleke kakhulu ezivikelekile esifundeni, kufanele sisho UDenezhkin Kamen, Ilmen, Sosva, Pripyshminskiye Bory kanye neziqiwi zemvelo zaseYugansky. Lezi zinqolobane zaziwa eRussia ngaleli gama zokuvednik, okusho ukuthi "indawo yasendle njalo."

Izimila ezijwayelekile zetaiga yaseSiberia

Izinhlobo zezihlahla eziyinhloko zetaiga yaseSiberia yilezi ama-conifers, mude futhi uhlala uluhlaza. Ezifundeni ezisenyakatho zivame kakhulu izibungu, ama-firs, ama-spruces namaphayini amnyama. Ngaseningizimu, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ama-conifers ahlangana nezinye izinhlobo zezihlahla ezinqabayo njenge maple, birches, ash trees, willows y Izihlahla ze-Oak.

Ihlathi laseSiberia

Izimbali ze-taiga zaseSiberia

Imiqhele yezihlahla, ephakeme futhi eminyene, ayikuvumeli ukudlula kwelanga, ngakho-ke zikhula ngaphezu kwakho konke ezingeni lomhlabathi ubulembu nobulembuKulinganiselwa ukuthi cishe u-40% womhlabathi osehlathini ugcwele amanzi. Kulezi zindawo ezinomswakama omningi ama-peat bogs agcwele. Eningizimu-ntshonalanga yesifunda yi IVasugan Swamp, elinye lamaxhaphozi amakhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni, i-peat yawo efinyelela ekujuleni okungaphezu kwamamitha amabili. Ezindaweni eziseceleni ezisenyakatho, ezingenazihlahla, umhlabathi uqandisiwe yi permafrost.

Ehlathini laseSiberia, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni eziseningizimu, kukhona nezihlahlana ezijwayelekile zamahlathi axubekile. Phakathi kwezitshalo zeberry ezivelele kakhulu kukhona ama-gooseberries, the ama-cranberries, the amajikijolo arctic noma i isihlahla somhlanga. Entwasahlobo, lapho iqhwa likhishwa, ziyavela izimbali ezimhlophe.

Izilwane zaseTaiga

Amahlathi amakhulu we-taiga ayindawo yokuhlala yezinhlobo eziningi zezilwane. Phakathi kwezilwane ezincelisayo sithola izinhlobo eziningi zezinambuzane ezidla imifino njenge reno, the inyamazane noma i i-moose. Kukhona futhi namagundane amaningi, avela ku- unogwaja omhlophe, lo i-marta futhi i mink kuze kube yizinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ze izingwejeje, onogwaja namagundane.

ibhele elinsundu

Ibhere elinsundu, elinye lezakhamizi ezinkulu zetaiga

Ama-canivores amakhulu yi lobo, the Zorro, the i-lince futhi i weasel. Ifanelwe isahluko esehlukile ibhele elinsundu, esinye sezilwane ezimele kakhulu izilwane zasendle zaseSiberia.

Phakathi kwezinyoni kumele sigqamise ezinye izihambisi ezifana ne- uklebe, the Ukhozi futhi i isikhova se-arctic. Ezindaweni eziseningizimu kakhulu bahlala nase- i-grouse emnyama nezinhlobo eziningi zezinyoni zehlathi ezifana ne- undlunkulu noma i umuthi wokhuni. Ngenxa yesimo sezulu esibandayo salezi zifunda, izilwane ezihuquzelayo azivamile, yize ezinye izinhlobo ze izibankwa nezinyoka.

Izinombolo ezinkulu zezilwane zisinda ebusika obude, obubandayo futhi obuneqhwa bethayela laseSiberia ngokwamukela isimo se i-anabiosis (esimweni sama-invertebrate) noma hibernación (njengoba kwenza izilwane ezithile ezincelisayo ezifana nebhere elinsundu noma ingwejeje). Izinyoni "zibalekela" ezimweni ezinzima zezulu ngokufudukela eningizimu.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

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