Yanayin a Ostiraliya

Yanayi a Ostiraliya yana da matukar ban sha'awa kuma yana da wadataccen arziki. Ka tuna cewa muna magana ne game da babbar ƙasa tare da kusan kilomita murabba'i miliyan takwas, fiye da Spain sau goma sha biyar. A zahiri, shine na shida mafi girma a duniya.

Saboda wannan, yin magana game da mahalli a Ostiraliya shine magana game da babban bambancin, na muhimmiyar adadin tsirrai da, sama da duka, dabbobin da suke da su dabbobi na musamman a duniya. Idan kuna son ƙarin sani game da wannan yankin mai ban sha'awa, muna gayyatarku don ci gaba da karatu.

Yaya muhalli yake a Australia?

Duk da komai, da yawa Australia Yanada busha-bushe da hamada. Koyaya, akwai babban bambancin wuraren zama waɗanda suka fito daga gandun daji na wurare masu zafi har zuwa irin alpine heaths kuma cewa su ne sakamakon nau'ikan yanayi daban-daban.

Duk wannan, tare da keɓaɓɓen yanki na ƙasarta, ya haifar da babban ɓangaren fure da fauna kasancewarsa rashin lafiya. Kamar yadda kuka sani, wannan ra'ayi yana nufin cewa suna cikin wannan yankin, amma babu wani wuri a duniya. Musamman, fiye da kashi tamanin na tsire-tsire da dabbobi masu shayarwa suna. Ga kifin bakin teku mai yanayin yanayi, yawan cutar endemism ya kai XNUMX%, yayin da kashi XNUMX% na tsuntsayen su kuma ana samesu ne kawai a Ostiraliya. Saboda haka, ba tare da ƙarin damuwa ba, za mu tattauna da ku game da wannan fure da, musamman, wannan fauna, tunda na ƙarshen shine kwarai da gaske.

Yanayin a Ostiraliya: flora

Yana da mahimmanci kuma muhimmi ne ciyawar ƙasar da zata iya daidaita ta gaba ɗaya mulkin fure, darikar da a karkashinta aka tsara manyan yankuna na duniyarmu waɗanda suke da ciyayi iri ɗaya.

A cewar RL sihiri, Farfesa na Botany a Jami'ar Queensland, an raba yankin Ostiraliya zuwa yankunan dazuzzuka masu zafi na wurare masu zafi, eucalyptus da acacia gandun daji, savanna, steppes da maquia. Isarshen an kafa shi ta hanyar saitunan shrubs na perennial.

Da Blue Mountains

Duwatsu Masu Tumbin

Daga cikin duk wannan ciyawar, wanda ake kira Gandun dazuzzuka, ayyana Kayan Duniya ta UNESCO. Babban yanki ne kusan kilomita murabba'i dubu hudu dake tsakanin Victoria da Queensland wanda yake da tsohuwar bishiyoyi da yawa. Ba yanki bane kawai na Ostiraliya da ke da wannan taken. Hakanan tsibirin fraser Wurin Tarihi ne na Duniya by katuwar bishiyar gigin kaurís dinta da daddawan danshi. Kuma ana iya faɗin haka game da kira Duwatsu Masu Tumbin, wanda yake a New South Wales, tare da gandun shakatawa guda takwas na ƙasar da kuma irin dutsen karst mai ban mamaki a cikin Kogon Jenolan.

Babban katangar murjani

Kodayake wannan wani abin mamakin yanayi bashi da wata alaƙa da flora ko fauna, yana da mahimmanci mu gaya muku game dashi a cikin labarin da aka sadaukar don magana game da yanayin Australia.

Yana da murjani mafi girma a duniya, tare da tsawon sama da kilomita dubu biyu da kuma fadin da ya fi na dari uku, kuma ya ratsa ta wani bangare mai kyau na gabar arewa maso gabashin kasar yana haifar da tsibirai da yawa. Tana kusa da Queensland, daidai a cikin abin da ake kira teku ta murjani.

Kodayake wani lokacin ana yi mata lakabi da mafi girman dabba a duniya, a zahiri tana ƙunshe da kwarangwal na dubun dubun mulkin mallaka na tsarin Scleractinia. An shigar da tarin halittu masu yawa akan wadannan ragowar.

Koyaya, wannan abin al'ajabi shine, kamar sauran mutane, yana fuskantar babbar barazana ta dumamar yanayi da gurɓataccen yanayi. Har ila yau, haɗarin kamun kifi ba bisa ka'ida ba da nau'ikan dabbobi kamar su kambun kifi na ƙayayuwa, wanda ke lalata murjani.

Idan Babban Reef ya ƙare, ɗayan kayan adon muhalli na duniya. Amma, bugu da kari, yanayin halittar halittu da yawa na kunkuru, kogin whale, da kifayen dolphin har ma da kada da dudongs za'a lalata su. Na karshen wasu dabbobi ne na musamman na dangin Sirenids wadanda suka kasance a matsayin wakili kawai na jinsinsu. Kuma wannan yana haifar da mu zuwa muku magana game da fauna na Australiya.

Girman murjani

Gutsure na Babban shingen Reef

Yanayin a Ostiraliya: fauna

Idan furannin Australiya suna da ban mamaki, to ba haka bane fauna, wanda shima yana da nau'ikan da yawa rashin lafiya. Mun riga mun fada muku cewa kusan kashi casa'in na dabbobi masu shayarwa, kamar yadda suke daidai da kaso guda na kifaye, da masu shayarwa, da masu rarrafe. Amma abin da ya fi ban sha'awa shi ne cewa wannan fauna ya haɗa da dabbobin da suke cikin mafi m na duniya. Zamu baku labarin wasu daga cikinsu.

Da kangaroo da sauran marsupials

Wataƙila shine mafi shahararrun waɗannan dabbobin, har zuwa cewa ya zama ɗayan alamun Australia. Wannan ba wurin bane don gabatar da bayanin kimiya kangaroos. Za mu takaita da gaya maku cewa su na gidan dangin Macropodinae marsupials kuma cewa a cikin kasar akwai nau'ikan rabe-raben guda uku: jan kangaroo, launin toka mai gabas da kuma na yamma.

Amma wannan ba shine kawai marsupial a Ostiraliya ba. Hakanan abokantaka koala, da wombat ko kerk tasn Tasmanian. Koyaya, daidai wannan tsibirin dabba ce ta musamman: da Shaidan Tasmaniyya, wanda, duk da sunan mai ban tsoro, girman ƙaramin kare ne kuma yana da baƙar fata mai tsananin duhu. Wataƙila sunan ta saboda ƙanshin da yake bayarwa da kuma kukan damuwa.

Dingo na Australiya ko kerkeci

An zauna a ƙasashen Ostiraliya na kimanin shekaru dubu biyar, a daidai lokacin da mazaunan farko, ana ɗaukar dingo a matsayin zuriyar kerkeci na asiya. Koyaya, an kuma kira shi Karen daji saboda yana da halaye da yawa tare da kayan kwalliyar gida. A zahiri, bisa ga wasu maganganun, yana iya zama magabatanta.

Lokacin da Bature na farko ya iso Ostiraliya, sun haye karnukansu da wadannan dabbobin. Saboda haka, tsarkakakken dingo yana cikin hatsarin halaka. Wannan yana nufin cewa, a yankuna da yawa na ƙasar, jinsin kare ne. Koyaya, a cikin wasu ana ci gaba da farautarta.

A matsayin sha'awa, za mu gaya muku cewa jinsi ne yafi sauƙin ladabi fiye da kerkecin Turai. Saboda wannan, a cikin Ostiraliya an yi amfani da su azaman dabbobin dabba ko da mazauna ƙasar. Koyaya, idan lokacin saduwa ya zo (galibi sau ɗaya a shekara) yawanci sukan gudu.

Kangaroo

Kangaroo, daya daga cikin alamun yanayi a Ostiraliya

Monotremes, abubuwan ban mamaki platypus

Ana kiran ta haka, monotremes, zuwa dabbobi masu shayarwa, ma'ana suna hayayyafa da kwai. A halin yanzu, nau'ikan su biyar ne kawai aka kiyaye kuma biyu yan asalin Australia ne. Daya shine echidna, kwatankwacin bushiya.

Amma mafi yawan sha'awar shine ornritrinco, wanda tabbas kun ji labarinsa saboda ɗayan halittu ne na musamman na masarautar dabbobi. Abun birgewa shine, lokacin da aka nuna wa masanan Ingilishi fatarsa ​​a cikin karni na XNUMX, suna tsammanin wasa ne mai amfani.

A fadi, platypus yana kama da agwagwa don hancinsa, amma wutsiyarsa tana kama da ta kwalliya kuma ƙafafunta suna kama da na otter. Kamar dai duk wannan bai wadatar ba, maza daga cikin jinsin suna da wani irin yanayi a ƙafafunsu na baya wanda ke sakin dafin. Ba mutuwa ga mutane bane, amma yana haifar da ciwo mai zafi. Kuma, ƙari, suna da wutar lantarki mai ƙarfi wanda ke taimaka musu gano abincinsu. Wannan yana nufin cewa suna gano su ta hanyar wutar lantarki da ƙwayoyin tsoka suke fitarwa.

Yana da ban sha'awa sosai ga wannan dabba cewa, tun lokacin da aka gano ta, ya zama abin binciken ta nazarin halittu. A wata ma'anar, alama ce ta Ostiraliya. Alamar New South Wales ce kuma tana bayyana akan tsabar kuɗin kashi ashirin.

The dugong

Mun riga mun fada muku game da dugong, don haka yanzu zamu gaya muku abin da yake kadai dabba mai shayarwa a doron duniya kuma dan uwanta mafi kusa shine giwa, abin sha'awa ne, tunda tsohon ya dace da ruwan. Amma, a cikin tekun Ostiraliya akwai wasu nau'ikan halittu masu ban sha'awa.

Kada

Thatayan da yake ɓangare na mahalli a Ostiraliya na cikin jinsin ne crocodrylus porosus, mafi girma a duniya. Wannan ingantaccen ruwan kwalliyar na iya kaiwa mita bakwai a tsayi kuma nauyinsa yakai kilo dubu da dari biyar. A saboda wannan dalili, babban mai farauta ne cewa, a kowace shekara, yana kashe mutane da yawa. Wani rukuni na waɗannan dabbobin ana yaba musu da kisan sojoji dubu Japan waɗanda suka mamaye Tsibirin Ramree na Burma a cikin 1945.

Kada kada

Abun tsoro mai kada kada

The emu

Wani sha'awar Oceania shine wannan babban tsuntsu mara tashi. A zahiri, shine na biyu mafi girma a duniya bayan jimina. Idan kuna son ƙarin bayanan tarihin game da wannan nau'in, za mu gaya muku hakan kwayayensu kore ne masu duhu, sabanin wadanda suka sanya sauran halittu na duniyar kaji.

Macizan

A ƙarshe, za mu gaya muku game da macizai na yanayin Australiya. Wannan kasar tana da mafi yawan su wadanda suke mai guba a duniya. Mafi hadari shine macijin tsani y Tiger game da na duniya da na dangi Hydrophiinae har zuwa teku.

A ƙarshe, yanayin cikin Australia ita ce ɗayan mafi bambancin duniya. A dalilin wannan, yana da nau'ikan halittu masu shaawa kamar waɗanda muka faɗa muku. Kuma tare da nau'ikan ƙadangare da kifaye masu ban tsoro kamar su bijimin kifin. Saboda haka, idan kuna tafiya zuwa ƙasar teku, zaku ga dabbobi na musamman a doron ƙasa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Sharhi

  1.   Zend Caelus m

    Australianasar Ostiraliya ta gayyace mu don mu bincika ta. Me muke jira? =)


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