Idrarhma, imali yesiGrike ngaphambi kwe-euro

Ngaba ukhe weva ngedrarhma? Ngokuqinisekileyo uyakwenza, ngakumbi ukuba ungaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 kwaye uhlala eYurophu. Inkqubo ye- idrarhm Yayiyimali esetyenziswa amatyeli aliqela eGrisi, kwade kwafika i-euro, ngo-2001. Inembali ende kakhulu nenomdla kwaye kufuneka ukuba ibe yenye yezemali zakudala ehlabathini, ke namhlanje siza kwazi ezinye izahluko. Olu hambo.

Idrarhma ibuyela umva kumawaka eminyaka, kodwa musa ukudideka njengoko ingasetyenziswanga ngokuqhubekayo. Ewe ngokunjalo, ukusukela kwisiqingatha sokuqala senkulungwane ye-XNUMX iinguqulelo ezintathu zala maxesha yedrarhma ivele kwilizwe, de ekugqibeleni iGrisi yaba yinxalenye ye-European Union kwaye yabelana ngemali namanye amazwe e-bloc.

Idrarhma yakudala

Singahlulahlula ibali ledrarhma kubini, Idrarhma kumaxesha akudala kunye nedrarhma yanamhlanje. Livelaphi igama? Kubonakala ngathi kwa igama le ngqekembe linento yokwenza nokubanjwa ngesandla, yingqang, okanye ubuncinci oko kuphakamisa eminye imibhalo ebhaliweyo kumacwecwe amandulo, ukusukela ngonyaka we-1100 BC, ebhekisa kwintyatyambo ezintandathu zesinyithi (ubhedu, ubhedu okanye intsimbi), ezibizwa ngokulandelelana obhio.

Ixesha emva yaba ngumgangatho wesilivere kwiinkozo ezininzi ezenziwe ngamaGrike amandulo. Emva kwexesha, ingqekembe nganye yayinegama layo ngokuxhomekeke nokuba yayiseAthene okanye eKorinte, umzekelo. Ewe, Isixeko ngasinye sasinemali yaso ngesimboli sayo kunye Ukulingana phakathi kwabo kwanikwa ngobungakanani kunye nomgangatho wentsimbi ezenziwe ngayo.

Phakathi kwezixeko zakudala ezazisebenzisa idrarhma zezi IAlexandria, iKorinte, i-Efese, iKos, iNaxos, iSparta, iSirakuse, iTroy neAthene, phakathi kwezinye ezininzi. Ngexesha elithile kwinkulungwane yesi-XNUMX BC ingqekembe yaseAthene eyaziwa njengeedrarhma ezine yayisaziwa kakhulu kwaye isetyenziswa. Sithetha ngoAlexander omkhulu.

Idrarhma yayenziwe ngobunzima obahlukeneyo, kuxhomekeke kwisimboli esithathe inxaxheba kule nkqubo. Inkqubo ye- umgangathor, nangona kunjalo, eyaphela sele ithandwa, yayiyiyo leyo I-4.3 gram, Isetyenziswe ngakumbi eAttica naseAthene.

Kamva, Isongelwa ngesandla kunye noloyiso kunye noloyiso luka-Alesandire Omkhulu, idrarhima yayiwela imida kwaye yayisetyenziswa kwizikumkani ezahlukeneyo zamaGrike. Ngapha koko, kuyaziwa ukuba imali yaseArabhu, i dirham, Ifumana igama layo kwidrarhma. Kuyafana nemali yaseArmenia, i idrama.

Nangona ukukwazi namhlanje ukuxabisa idrarhma yakudala kunzima kakhulu (urhwebo, ukuthengisa, uqoqosho alufani), abanye bathatha umngcipheko bathi inkulungwane yesi-46.50 ye-BC idrarhma iya kuba malunga ne-2015 yeedola ngo-XNUMX. Ngaphandle koko, inyani yile yokuba, njengokuba kunjalo nangemali yangoku, iidrarhima ezifanayo bezingasoloko zifuneka ukuze zihlale okanye zixhase usapho.

Amaqhezu kunye nokuphindaphindwa kwedrarhma nazo zacwangciswa kwiindawo ezininzi. Umzekelo, eYiphutha zikaPtolemy babekhona pentadrachmas y zintsi. Ke, ngokushwankathela, sinokuthi ubunzima bedrarhma yesilivere yakudala yayijikeleze iigram ezingama-4.3 (nangona yayihluka-kurhulumente ukuya kwisixeko-sikarhulumente). Yahlulwahlulwa yangamabhola amathandathu eerandi ezingama-0.72, yahlulahlulwa yaba ziinkozo ezine ezincinci eziyi-0.18 yeegram naphakathi kweemilimitha ezintlanu ukuya kwezisi-5 ubukhulu.

Idrarhma yanamhlanje

Idrarhma endala, enegama lakhe elizukileyo nelinamandla, yaziswa kwakhona kubomi bamaGrike kwisiqingatha sokuqala senkulungwane ye-1832, ngo-XNUMX, Kungekudala emva kokusekwa kombuso. Yahlulahlulwa yangama-100 ilepta, ezinye zezobhedu kunye nezinye zesilivere, kwaye kukho ingqekembe yegolide yedrarhma engama-20 ene-5.8 yeegram zentsimbi exabisekileyo.

Ngo-1868 iGrisi yajoyina uMbutho Wezemali waseLatinInkqubo edibanisa iimali ezininzi zase Yuropu zibe nye, isetyenziswa ngamazwe angamalungu, kwaye yahlala isebenza kwada kwango 1927. Idrarhma yaba lilingana nobunzima nexabiso kwi-franc yesiFrentshi.

Kodwa le Union Latin Monetary Union yawa kwiMfazwe yokuQala nasemva kolo ngquzulwano, kwi IRiphabhlikhi entsha uHelena, ezinye iimali ezintsha zenziwe. Kwaye kwenzeka ntoni kumatikiti? Amanqaku ebhanki akhutshwe yiBhanki yeSizwe yaseGrisi isasazwe phakathi kwe-1841 kunye ne-1928 emva koko iBhanki yaseGrisi yaqhubeka isenza njalo ukusuka ngo-1928 ukuya ku-2001 umzuzu xa i-euro ingena kwindawo.

Kodwa yintoni eyayikho ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX ngaphambi kwedrarhma? Ingqekembe ebizwa EPhoenix, eyaziswa kungekudala emva kokuba ilizwe lifumene inkululeko kuRhulumente wase-Ottoman. Kwakukho ngo-1832 apho i-phoenix yatshintshwa yidrarhma ehonjiswe ngomfanekiso kaKumkani u-Oto waseGrisi, inkosi yokuqala yamaGrike.

Njengoko kuhlala kunjalo xa kukho ukunyuka kwamaxabiso, kwaye iGrisi ibinembali yezoqoqosho efanelekileyo, Ukutyhubela inkulungwane yama-XNUMX, kuye kwavela imali engamaphepha enemibutho emikhulus. Ngokukodwa ngamaxesha amaNazi kwi-WWII.

Kodwa ngokuqhubeka nembali yale ngqekembe idumileyo, singathetha ngayo Idrarhma yesibini ethe yanamhlanje ebonakala ngokuchanekileyo emva kokuwa kwamaNazi. Kukhululwe iGrisi, ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kuxhaphakile kwaye yimali yamaphepha kuphela ebunjiweyo, yamanani anyukayo.

Ngo-50s sangena kwixesha lesithathu ledrarhma yanamhlanje, kwabakho ukwehla nokuxabiseka kwemali kwaye iibhili zehlelo ezisezantsi zaphuma zijikeleza. Ixabiso lotshintshiselwano lihleli kwizinga le Iidrarhma ezingama-30 kwidola kude kube ngo-1973. Ukuba sinenkumbulo, ininzi okanye incinci xa kusenzeka iNgxaki yeoyile kwaye imeko yezemali iqala ukutshintsha, hayi eGrisi kuphela kodwa kwihlabathi liphela.

Kancinci, ngaphezulu nangakumbi iidrarhma ziyafuneka ukuthenga idola kwaye ke size I-2001, xa iGrisi ijoyina i-European Union kwaye idrarhma iyeka ukujikeleza, yathathelwa indawo yi-euro.

Ibali liyaqhubeka, ilizwe liyaqhubeka ukujongana neengxaki, imibutho yabasebenzi kunye nokungamanyani, idola iyalawula, i-euro iyakhuphisana, i-yuan ikhanya ngakumbi nangakumbi, ke akukho mntu unokuqinisekisa ukuba ngenye imini i-European Union ayizukunyibilika kwaye idrarhma iyakwenza ukubuya. ukubonakala eGrisi. Ucinga ntoni?


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