Wasannin Pythian, tarihi da wasanni a Delphi

Delphi Girka

Hudu sun kasance manyan Wasannin Panhellenic na zamanin da: shahararrun wasannin Olympics, na Nemea a Argos, Isthmian a Koranti da Wasannin Pythian abin ya faru a cikin Wuri na Apollo a Delphi. Zamu tattauna na biyun a cikin sakon mu a yau.

Garin Delphi yana cikin yankin Girkanci na Phocis, kimanin kilomita 150 yamma da Atenas. Kusan shekaru dubu uku da suka wuce, inda babu kowa cikin daji da kuma daji, an gina wuri mai tsarki a can don girmama allahn Apollo wanda kuma yake zaune ɗayan sanannun sanannun tarihin zamanin Girka.

Wani rukuni na matan firist ya kira pythias Su ne suka kula da magana da kuma bayyana wa baƙi ƙirar gumakan (kalmar nan "boka" ta samo asali daga gare su). Pythias an ambaci sunan ne don tunawa da dodo Python, Katon maciji wanda yake zaune a wurin da allah zai kashe shi.

Shahararrun wannan magana ta kai kololuwa daga ƙarni na XNUMX BC Matafiya daga ko'ina Hellas sun yi tururuwa zuwa can don ba da sadaka ta zaɓe ga Apollo da sauraron ayoyin Allah. Sakamakon ci gaba da kwararar baƙi, an gina gidajen ibada, abubuwan tarihi da sauran gine-gine da yawa.

Delphi Girka

Rushewar haikalin Apollo a Delphi

Kari akan haka, a Delphi akwai wurin alama da aka sani da Omphalos, Cibiyar duniya " abin da Zeus ya nuna tare da babban dutse mai sihiri.

Bikin Wasannin Pythian

A shekara ta 590 BC an gudanar da Wasannin Pythic a karon farko, wanda zai sami shekara-shekara periodicity (Ba kamar wasannin Olympics ba, wanda ake gudanarwa kowane huɗu). Waɗanda ke kula da shirya su firistoci ne aka kira 'yan amshi, daga garuruwan Girka daban-daban.

Tarihi yana da cewa Apollo da kansa ne ya kafa wasannin bayan ya kashe Python. Labarin ya ba da labarin yadda allahn ya mallaki Delphi tare da laurel fure a kansa. A saboda wannan dalili, an ba da lada ga waɗanda suka yi nasara a wasannin Pythic laurel wreath, wani tabki wanda daga baya aka kwaikwayi shi a sauran shagulgula da gasa bukukuwa.

Tsarkaka mai tsarki

Kamar yadda lamarin ya kasance game da Wasannin Olympics, a cikin watannin kafin fara wasannin Pythic da yawa masu sanarwa kira theories sun zagaya Girka don sanar da ranar da aka fara ta.

Manufar wadannan manzannin ita ce wannan kiran zai isa ko'ina. Garin da ya yarda ya shiga cikin wasannin ya kamata nan da nan ya dakatar da duk wani yaƙin kuma ya miƙa wa kira "Tsarkakakken sulhu." Ba a cire garuruwan da suka ƙi yin hakan, wanda hakan ya zama babbar asarar daraja.

Bukukuwa

An ƙaddara farkon wasannin Pythian don bukukuwa masu tsarki don girmama Apollo. Akwai manyan hadayu (hecatombs), jerin gwano y liyafa.

Delphi Girka

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo Delphi

Hakanan akwai wasan kwaikwayon wasan kwaikwayon wanda aka tuna da almara mai ban mamaki na allah da mummunan macijin Python. Don shirya wannan wasan shahararren Gidan wasan kwaikwayo Delphi, ɗayan gidajen sinima na Girkanci mafi kyau kiyaye.

Gasar waka da kida

Bayan bukukuwan budewa, wasannin Pythian sun fara ne da jerin gasar kida inda mahalarta suka nuna gwaninsu na kida da kayan kida kamar zither. Tare da lokaci, wasan kwaikwayo, ƙungiyar mawaƙa da rawa. A ƙarshen lokacin ma akwai gasa ta waƙa.

Gasar wasanni

Bayan ranakun da aka keɓe don zane-zane, sai aka fara gasar wasannin motsa jiki. Shahararren shaida ita ce filin wasa (kimanin mita 178), na mataki biyu, da tseren tsere na filayen wasanni 24 da tseren makamai, a cikin abin da masu gudu suka fafata da makamai tare da hoplitic panoply; an kuma gudanar da gasa tsalle mai tsayi, discus da jifa, kazalika da gwaje-gwaje iri-iri na gwagwarmaya kamar na zafin nama. Akwai rukuni uku bisa ga shekarun masu fafatawa.

An keɓe kwanakin ƙarshe na Wasannin Pythian gasan dawakai. Akwai rukuni biyu: tseren karusai tare da dawakai biyu (katako) da dawakai huɗu (karusai). An gudanar da waɗannan gasa a cikin eyana tsere a cikin garin makwabta na Cirra, 'yan kilomitoci daga Delphi. Koyaya, a cikin Wuri Mai Tsarki sanannen mutum-mutumi na Charioteer na Delphi, yau an kiyaye shi a gidan kayan gargajiya na garin. Wannan sassaka tagulla ta wakilta Yan Sanda Gela, azzalumin Girka Sicily wanda ya bayyana kansa a matsayin wanda ya lashe wasannin a lokuta da dama.

Arshen Wasannin Pythian

Shahararren Wasannin Pythian ya ci gaba har bayan mamayar da Rome ta yi wa Girka, kodayake sun fara tafiyar hawainiya lokacin ƙi. Oracle ya ci gaba da karɓar baƙi kuma ana ci gaba da gudanar da wasannin, amma sanannen sanannensa da martabarta a hankali ya ragu.

Dukiyar da aka ajiye a cikin temples a Delphi an sace su a cikin karni na XNUMX AD ta Goths da Heruli. A ƙarshe, wasannin sun daina yin bikin a cikin ƙarni mai zuwa.


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