Imfundo yezingane zase-Athene

ezemfundo-athene

Ngaso sonke isikhathi uma sibheka iso ku- IGrisi yakudala nakanjani sithola ukuqhathanisa nokuphikisana phakathi I-Athene neSparta. Lokhu futhi kwenzeka kwezemfundo: Imfundo yase-Athene Ukuqhathanisa la imfundo yamazwe angaphandle.

Kwakunomehluko omkhulu phakathi kwamadolobha amabili. ISparta imfundo yentsha, ebizwa Agoge, wagijima ophethe umbuso. Inhloso kuphela yalokhu kwakuwukuqeqesha izingane njengamasosha esikhathi esizayo. E-Athene, noma kunjalo, imfundo yayiyimfihlo futhi wayenombono womhlaba wonke, yize kwakungaba nokwehluka ngokuya ngothisha ngamunye. Umqondo ojwayelekile kunoma yikuphi ukuthi izingane zikhulisa umzimba wazo kanye nengqondo yazo. Ezigabeni ezilandelayo sizochaza ukuthi kungani le ndlela.

Okokuqala kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi izingane kuphela ezazikwazi ukuthola le mfundo. Amantombazane abuyiselwa ekhaya, lapho afundiswa khona ngabesifazane kwi-gynoecium. Inhloso bekuwukuthi laba bantu abasha base-Athene babe ngomama nabomama abalungile empilweni yabantu abadala. Ngaphandle kokungafani okuncane, lokhu kwakuvamile kuwo wonke amadolobha aseGrisi.

AbakwaPaideia

Uhlelo lwezemfundo lwe-Athens yakudala lwalwaziwa njenge I-Paideia. Ngokuvamile, inhloso yalesi sifundo kwakuwukuvumela izingane zesilisa ukuthi zithole isimo sokuziphatha esiphakeme. Ezingeni elithe xaxa, inhloso kwakuwukuhlinzeka umphakathi ngamadoda azilungiselele kahle ukuthwala imithwalo yezepolitiki neyezempi ababezobhekana nayo njengezakhamizi sebekhulile.

Isifanekiso sikaSocrates

USocrates wafundisa izinsizwa eziningi zobukhosi base-Athene waze wagwetshwa intambo ngamacala okonakalisa intsha.

Umoya wePaideia wawususelwe ezinsikeni ezine o kalakogathia:

  • Ubuhle bomzimba ngokunakekelwa komuntu siqu nokuzivocavoca umzimba.
  • Isithunzi sokuziphatha, ukuhlukanisa okuhle nokubi.
  • Ukuhlakanipha, okutholakala ngolwazi.
  • Isibindi, ikhwalithi ebalulekile yokusebenzisa kahle ezintathu ezedlule.

Kuze kube yiminyaka eyisikhombisa, abafana namantombazane babelana ngezimfundiso eziyisisekelo, uchungechunge lwamagugu namamodeli wokuziphatha odokotela nezinceku eziphethe ukunakekelwa kwabo abakudlulisela kwabancane ngesiko lomlomo: izinganekwane, izinkondlo, iHomeric, izindaba amaqhawe, njll. Imindeni ecebile yayinesigqila esikhulile esibizwa umfundisi, obejwayele ukuphatha le misebenzi.

Izigaba zemfundo yase-Athene

La ubandlululo yakhiqizwa lapho ifinyelela eminyakeni eyisikhombisa. Ngemuva kwalokho abafana baqala umsebenzi wabo wokufunda esikoleni somphakathi noma busisiwe. Lapho, i- abalimi begrama Ibafundise ukufunda nokubhala, ngaphezu kokubethula emiqondweni eyisisekelo yezibalo. Izitshudeni bezihlala emabhentshini zisebenzisa amabhodi we-wax kanye nama-papyri ukwenza umsebenzi wesikole. Ukujeziswa ngokomzimba kwakuvamile futhi kubhekwa kahle. Ukuqeqeshwa komculo, okukhona kuzo zonke izigaba, bekungenye yezihloko ezibalulekile. Uthisha ophethe lolu daba wayaziwa ngokuthi ama-kitharistes.

Kusukela eminyakeni eyi-12, izingane zaqalwa kwezemidlalo: i-wrestling, ukugxuma, ukugijima, ukuphonsa, ukubhukuda ... Izingane zachitha amahora amaningi inkulumo, kodwa futhi bezivocavoca umzimba kakhulu ngaphandle, ngaso sonke isikhathi benqunu ngokuphelele futhi begadiwe kutholile. Ukubaluleka kwezemidlalo kwakungokuthi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi izikole zefilosofi zaziwa njenge ama-gyms.

Lapho befika eminyakeni eyi-18, abantu abasha baba ngama-ephebos. I- ephebia yathatha iminyaka emibili futhi yayiyisigaba esibaluleke kunazo zonke ekwakhekeni kwentsha yase-Athene. Ngalesi sikhathi, babeqeqeshelwa ubuciko bempi (ukuqeqeshelwa ezempi) futhi bafundiswa ukuba yizakhamizi ezinokwethenjelwa, izikhulumi ezinhle, nezimenenja zomphakathi eziphumelelayo.

Imfundo ka-Alexander Omkhulu

U-Aristotle (uthisha) no-Alexander (umfundi) eqoshwe ngekhulu le-XNUMX leminyaka.

Abantu abasha abavela emindenini ecebe kakhulu bakhulise imfundo yabo badlulela eminyakeni engama-21 ezandleni zezazi zefilosofi nabafundisi abadumile. Icala elaziwayo ilele lentsha U-Alexander the Great, imfundo yakhe e-Athene yenziwa yiwona kanye I-Aristotle.

Isici esiyimpikiswano semfundo yase-Athene (kanye nemfundo yamaGrikhi iyonke) kwakuwukuthambekela kokuthuthuka ubudlelwano obuseduze phakathi kukathisha omdala nomfundi osemusha. Kwesinye isikhathi lobu budlelwano babuthatha isici esicacile sobulili, esasamukelwa emphakathini.

AmaSophist kanye nemfundo yase-Athene

Ngaphezu kwezemidlalo, ubuciko bezempi nomculo, ekufundiseni izingane nentsha yase-Athene kwakukhona izihloko ezithile noma izifundo ezazibaluleke kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwezakhamizi zesikhathi esizayo zamaphoyisa. Lezi zifundo zafundiswa yi Abaculi kubafundi abakhethe imfundo ephakeme ngemuva kwesigaba se-ephebia.

Ayengobani amaSophist? Ngokuyinhloko othisha bezemfundo ephakeme jikelele. Izimfundiso zakhe zazigxile enjongweni ethile: ukwakheka kwezikhulumi ezifundile nezikhuluma kahle. Lezi zimfanelo zazibalulekile empumelelweni empilweni yezepolitiki, lapho izinqumo eziningi zazincike kwikhono lezikhulumi ukukholisa izakhamuzi ngomqondo othile noma omunye.

Le nhloso izuzwe ngokuqeqesha abafundi kulezi zifundo ezilandelayo:

  • I-Dialectics, eyaziwa nangokuthi "ubuciko bokuxoxisana." Othisha baqeqesha abafundi babo ngokubafundisa ukwenza izinkulumo ezimbili lapho kuvikelwa khona umqondo owodwa nokuphambene.
  • IMathemata, isihloko esasifaka phakathi kwezinye izinto izibalo, i-geometry, ukuvumelana kanye nesayensi yezinkanyezi.
  • Izinkulumo, "Ubuciko bokukhuluma." ILees yafundiswa ikhono lokuncenga izethameli ngegama.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-3, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1.   isizungu kusho

    Lokhu kukhulu kimi !!!
    NGIYABONGA KAKHULU !! ♥♥♥

  2.   UMaria Paula kusho

    Lokhu kuhle !! .. Ngibonga kakhulu !!! 😀

  3.   pablo kusho

    lena yomsila ilingana nama-giles hahahahaha