ʻO ke ola o nā kāne ma Sparta

I ka moʻomeheu kaulana ʻike mākou āpau i nā kāne o Sparta mahalo i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni 300. Ua hoʻololi hoʻohuli ʻia ka ʻike o ka papa moʻolelo i ka hale kiʻiʻoniʻoni a ua hoʻololi ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i ke kiʻi o nā Spartans a mau loa.

Akā pehea ke ʻano o ke ola ma Sparta? Ma waho o kēlā mau kino kālai a me ke ʻano kaua, He aha ke ʻano o ke ola no nā kāne o SpartaPehea lākou i aʻo ai, i nā ʻano ʻohana, he aha ke ʻano o kā lākou wahine?

ʻO Sparta, kona mōʻaukala

ʻO Sparta kahi kulanakauhale-mokuʻāina ʻo Helene kahiko, aia ma ke kapa o ka muliwai Eurotas, ma Laconia, ma ka hema hikina o ka Peloponnesus. Ua hoʻomaka ʻia kāna boom pūʻali koa ma kahi o 650 BC a he ʻano kahiko ia inaina me Atenai i ka manawa o ke Kaua Peloponnesian, ma waena o 431 a me 404 BC Ua lanakila ʻo ia i kēia kaua a ua hiki iā ia ke mālama i kona kūʻokoʻa politika a hiki i ka lanakila ʻana o ko Roma iā Helene.

Ma hope o ka hāʻule o ke aupuni Roma a me kāna mahele ʻē aʻe, ʻaʻole hiki iā Sparta ke pakele mai kēlā hopena a ua hōʻole ʻia kona ʻōlinolinoʻO kāna poʻe hoʻi i pau i ka haʻalele i ke kūlanakauhale i ka wā o ka wā waena.

Akā ua lawa kēlā mau kenekulia i mea nui nona ka mokuna ponoʻī i ka mōʻaukala, a no ka ʻōnaehana kaiaulu a me kāna kumukānāwai e hōʻike ana i ka nui o ka militarism a me ka maikaʻi.

Ua mahele maoli ʻia ka hui Spartan i strata: he kamaʻāina me ko lākou mau pono āpau, i kapa ʻia ʻo Spartans, akā aia nō kekahi nā mothake, ka poʻe ʻaʻole Spartan ʻoiai i iho mai nā Spartans, a ua noa. Aia pū kekahi nā periikoi, ʻaʻole Spartans manuahi a me ka helehelenas, ʻaʻole Spartans i kauā kauā.

ʻO nā kāne Spartan nā protagonist maoli o kēia kaiāulu, ʻo lākou a i kekahi manawa kekahi mothakes a perioikoi, ua hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻia no ke kaua a lilo i koa maikaʻi loa. Wahine? Ma ka home, ʻae, me nā kuleana he nui aku ma mua o nā wahine ʻē aʻe o kona wā.

Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka moʻolelo o Sparta i a wā prehistoric, kekahi classical, kekahi Hellenic a me kekahi Roman. Ma hope e ukali ʻia e ka wā post-classical a me kēia au. He paʻakikī ka manawa mua e kūkulu hou ma muli o ka kekeʻe o nā mea āpau e ka orality i ka lawe ʻana o ka ʻike. ʻO ka wā Kikowaena, ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo ia ka mea i hoʻopaʻa nui ʻia no ka mea pili ia i ka consolidation o ka mana Spartan i ka peni.

Ma ka mea maikaʻi loa, aia ʻo Sparta ma waena o 20 a 35 mau kamaʻāina., me nā mahele ʻē aʻe o nā poʻe i hana i kāna kaiāulu. Me kēia nui o ka poʻe ʻO Sparta kekahi o nā mokuʻāina Helene nui a koʻikoʻi hoʻi.

ʻO kēia ka manawa o ka mea kaʻao Kaua o Thermopylae ʻike mākou i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, e kūʻē i ka pūʻali koa Peresia. Ua like iki nā mea i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni, kahi e pau ai me ka lanakila hanohano no ka poʻe Spartans. I ke ola maoli, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope mai, ua hiki iā Sparta ke hoʻopaʻi ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ke kuʻikahi Helene e kūʻē i ka poʻe Peresia, ma ke kaua o Plataea.

Ma aneʻi ua lanakila ka poʻe Helene a me kēlā lanakila ua hoʻopau ʻia ka Helene - ke kaua Persian a me nā makemake o ka poʻe Peresia e komo i ʻEulopa. ʻOiai he kuikahi Helene kēlā i hoʻopau iā lākou, i loko o kēlā kuikahi ke kaupaona o nā koa Spartan maikaʻi loa, nā alakaʻi o ka pūʻali koa Helene.

Eia kekahi i loko o kēia wā kuʻuna ua loaʻa iā Sparta kahi pūʻali koa nona iho, ke kuʻuna he mana ʻāina ia. A maikaʻi ka hana ʻana ua hoʻoneʻe ia i ka mana moku o Atenai. I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, i ka mea ʻoi loa, ʻaʻole hiki ke kāpae ʻia ʻo Sparta, e hoʻomalu nei i ka wahi āpau a me nā mokuʻāina ʻē aʻe pū kekahi, a ʻo Turkey hoʻi i kēia lā.

Loaʻa kēia mana iā ia i nā ʻenemi he nui pono e kū i ke alo o nā mokuʻāina Helene ʻē aʻe i ke kaua ʻo Corinto. I kēia kaua, ua hui pū ʻo Argos, Corinto, Athens a me Thebes e kūʻē iā Sparta, i paipai mua ʻia a kākoʻo ʻia e ka poʻe Peresia. Ua luku ʻia ʻo Sparta i kahi kaua nui loa ma ke kaua o Cridus, kahi i komo ai nā mea hoʻolimalima Helene a me Poenikia e kūʻē iā ia ma ka ʻaoʻao o Atenai, a ua hōʻemi ʻia kāna mau hopohopo hoʻonui.

Ma hope o nā makahiki he nui o ka hakakā ʻana, ua kau inoa ʻia ka maluhia, ka Ka maluhia o Antalcidas. Me ia, ua hoʻi nā kūlanakauhale Helene a pau o Ionia i ka Persian aegis a ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka palena Persian o ʻAsia mai ka hoʻoweliweli Spartan. Mai ia manawa ua hoʻomaka ka liʻiliʻi a me ka liʻiliʻi o Sparta i ka ʻōnaehana politika Helene, ʻoiai i ka pae pūʻali koa. A ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻaʻole ia i ola hou mai ka lanakila ʻana ma ke kaua o Leuctra a me ka nā hakakā kūloko ma waena o nā kamaʻāina like ʻole.

I nā manawa o ʻO Alexander ka mea nui ʻAʻole pili ka pilina me Sparta. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole makemake ka poʻe Spartans e hui pū me nā Helene ʻē aʻe i ka Hui Lūkini kaulana ʻo Corinto ke hoʻokumu ʻia, akā ua koi ʻia lākou e hana ma hope I ka Ua pili ʻo Punic Wars Sparta me ka Lepupalika Roma, ke hoʻāʻo mau nei e mālama i kona kūʻokoʻa, akā i ka hopena ua pau i ka lilo ʻana ma hope o ka lilo ʻana o ke kaua Laconia.

Ma hope o ka hiolo ʻana o ka Emepera Roma ua luku ʻia nā ʻāina o Sparta e nā Visigoth a lilo kona poʻe kamaʻāina i poʻe kauā. I ka Middle Ages lilo ʻo Sparta i kāna mea nui mau loa, a kali ʻo Sparta i kēia mau kenekulia he mau kenekulia, a hiki i ka XNUMX kenekulia, e hoʻokumu hou ʻia e ka mōʻī Helene Otto.

ʻO Sparta, kona kaiāulu

Sparta he oligarchy ia hoʻomalu ʻia e ka hale aliʻi hoʻoilina, nona nā lālā mai ʻohana ʻelua, ʻo ka Agiad a me ka Eurypontid. Ua ʻōlelo lākou he mamo lākou na Heracles. Ua loaʻa nā mōʻī nā kuleana haipule, ka pūʻali koa a me ka hoʻokolokolo. I nā mea haipule ke kahuna nui ka mōʻī, ma nā mea hoʻokolokolo he mana ko kāna ʻōlelo a ma nā mea koa ʻo ia ke alakaʻi nui loa.

Ua hoʻomalu nui ʻia ka hoʻoponopono kīwila e kahi hui o nā luna kiʻekiʻe, he 28 mau kāne makua i ko lākou 60, nona ka ʻohana aliʻi. Ua kūkākūkā ʻia nā mea āpau ma waena o lākou a laila ua lilo ka pilikia i nīnau ʻia i kekahi hui hui ʻē aʻe, akā i kēia manawa o nā kamaʻāina Spartan, nā poʻe i koho i ka mea a nā kūpuna i noi ai. ʻO kekahi o kēia mau pilikia hoʻonohonoho a ʻoiai ke hoʻololi nei nā mana o ka mōʻī i ka hala ʻana o ka manawa, i ka hapanui e nalowale ana i nā mana loa loa.

Ua aʻo ʻia kahi keikikāne Spartan mai ka wā kamaliʻi mai a i kekahi manawa aia he mau keiki haole i ʻae ʻia i kēlā aʻo. Inā maikaʻi loa ka haole, a laila ua hāʻawi ʻia ʻo ia i kupa.

Akā ua uku ʻia kēia aʻo ʻana No laila inā ʻoe he Spartan, me ka ʻole o ke kālā ʻaʻohe mea aʻo a me ke aʻo ʻole ʻaʻohe kamaʻāina. Akā aia kekahi ʻano o ke aʻo ʻana no ka poʻe ʻaʻole mai kinohi mai, he kamaʻāina. Ua inoa periikoi, a ua manaʻo ʻia no nā poʻe ʻaʻole Spartan.

Pono ʻoe e ʻike i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo i Sparta, ʻo ka poʻe Spartans lākou he hapa. ʻO ka hapa nui nā mahiole, ka poʻe i hele mua mai Laconia a me Messenia a ua lanakila ka Spartans i ke kaua a hoʻokauwa ʻia. ʻAʻole pepehi nā Spartans i nā kāne a me nā wahine a me nā keiki i lilo i ʻano kauā. A laila, ua lilo nā mea kōkua i mea like me nā mea lawelawe, e like me ke koena o nā kūlanakauhale ʻo Helene.

Hiki i nā Helots ke mālama i 50% o ka hua o kā lākou hana a male, hoʻomaʻamaʻa i kahi hoʻomana a loaʻa iā lākou kekahi mea o lākou iho, ʻoiai inā ʻaʻole kuleana politika. A inā lawa ko lākou waiwai, kūʻai i ko lākou kūʻokoʻa. No ke aha mai? ʻĀ, i Sparta ua hoʻolaʻa nā kāne iā lākou iho i 100% i ke kaua i hiki ʻole iā lākou ke hana i nā hana lima, ʻo ia ka mea no nā poʻe kōkua. ʻAʻole i nele ka pilina me kekahi mau puaʻa hānai, akā naʻe ua hilinaʻi ka poʻe Spartans iā lākou i ka wā i hoʻokumu ai lākou i mau pūʻali koa koa o nā pailaka.

I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, aia he kipi kauā ma Atenai a ʻo ka poʻe i holo i Atica e holo i waena o nā pūʻali koa Spartan. A ʻo kēia ʻano o ke kaiāulu Spartan i hana kū hoʻokahi ia. I kēlā me kēia hihia, i ka hopena, aia nā haunaele ʻoiai ʻo nā heloti ka hapa nui. A pehea nā poʻe ʻē aʻe, ka periikoi? ʻOiai he kumu like kaiāulu ko lākou e like me nā pailaka, ʻaʻohe o lākou kūlana like. ʻAʻole maopopo maopopo he aha lākou, no ka mea ua manuahi lākou akā ʻaʻohe o nā kaohi e like me nā mea kōkua.

Akā inā ʻaʻohe maʻalahi ka lilo ʻana i helot a i ʻole perioikoi, a laila ʻaʻole hoʻi he Spartan. I ka hānau ʻia ʻana o kahi keiki, inā he kino a he maʻi paha, hoʻolei ʻia mai ka mauna ʻo Taygetos. Inā he keiki kāne wau ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia i kāna hoʻomaʻamaʻa i kona makahiki he ʻehiku e hoʻokō i ke aʻo a me ka maikaʻi o ke kino. Ua hānai wale ʻia lākou, ʻaʻole i nui loa, i mea e aʻo ai lākou e ola liʻiliʻi. Ma waho aʻe o ke aʻo ʻana i ka hakakā a me ka lawelawe ʻana i nā mea kaua, ua aʻo pū lākou i ka hulahula, mele, heluhelu a me ke kākau ʻana.

I kekahi mau makahiki he mea mau ko lākou alakaʻi, he ʻōpio, ʻōpio hoʻokahi i hiki ke hoʻoulu iā lākou ma ke ʻano he kumu hoʻohālike. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia i kēia lā ʻo ia mau mea hoa hana moekolohe, ʻoiai ʻaʻole ʻike maopopo ʻia ia. Me ka mahalo i ke aʻo ʻana o nā kaikamahine ʻIke liʻiliʻi loa, akā manaʻo ʻia ua aʻo pū ʻia lākou me ka noʻonoʻo pū, akā me ka manaʻo nui i nā ʻano ʻē aʻe.

I ka makahiki 20, he kamaʻāina Spartan kahi ʻāpana o kahi kalapu ma kahi o 15 mau lālā, ka sissytia. Ua pili loa kā lākou pili a kokoke i ka makahiki 30 hiki iā lākou ke holo no ke keʻena lehulehu. A hiki i ka makahiki 60 ua hana lākou. Ua male lāua ma 20 akā pili wale lākou me ko lākou ʻohana i ka 30 i ko lākou wā e hoʻomaha ana mai ke ola pūʻali.

ʻO kaʻoiaʻiʻoʻo ia e pili ana i ke ola pūʻali koa o Sparta he nui nā kaʻao, kāhiko ʻia a pau. Aia kekahi o ka wahine e hāʻawi iā ia i ka pale kaua ma mua o ka hele ʻana i ke kaua, e haʻi iā ia "Ma luna ona a i ʻole me ia", ʻo ia hoʻi, ua make a lanakila paha. Akā i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole i hoʻi mai ka poʻe Spartans make, ua kanu ʻia lākou ma ke kahua kaua. Hōʻike kekahi moʻolelo kaʻao e pili ana i nā makuahine Spartan i inaina i kā lākou keiki nāwaliwali, akā me he mea lā, ʻo kēia mau ʻōlelo i hoʻomaka ma Athens, e hoʻowahāwahā iā lākou

Ke ʻōlelo nei no nā wahine, nā makuahine a me nā wahine ... Pehea ka male ma Sparta? Wahi a Plutarch ʻo ke ʻano maʻamau o "ʻAihue i ka wahine mare". E ʻokiʻoki ke kaikamahine i kona poʻo a ʻaʻahu me he kāne lā e moe i ka moena i ka pōʻeleʻele. No laila e hele mai ke keikikāne ma hope o ka ʻaina awakea a moe pū me ia.

Hāʻawi ʻia i kēia, nui ka poʻe e kuhi nei i kēia maʻamau, kū hoʻokahi iā Sparta, ʻōlelo maopopo e hoʻonalonalo ka wahine iā ia iho he kāne i hiki i kāna kāne i ka hoʻomaka ke moekolohe me ia, maʻa mau i ka moekolohe ma waena o nā kāne ...

Ma mua o kēlā, Ua mālama kahi wahine Spartan i kahi wahi kūikawā i waena o nā wahine o ka wā kahiko. ʻOiai ua hānau ʻia lākou hanai ʻia lākou e like me ko lākou poʻe kaikunāne, ʻaʻole lākou i noho ma ka hale, hiki iā lākou ke hoʻoikaika kino ma waho a male i ka ʻōpio a i ʻole i ko lākou 20s. ʻO ka manaʻo e hōʻalo i nā hāpai ʻōpio ʻōpio i hānau ʻia nā keiki olakino a ʻaʻole i make nā wahine ma mua.

A e hōʻoia hoʻi i ke koko ikaika ka maʻamau o kaʻana wahine ua ʻae ʻia. Ua ʻae paha kahi ʻelemakule i kahi kāne ʻōpio e hiamoe me kāna wahine. A i ʻole inā ʻaʻole hiki i nā hānau mua ke hānau keiki. ʻIke nō, nā hana kuʻuna i hele pū me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ua make nā kāne i ke kaua a he mea pono ʻaʻole e hoʻopau i ka lehulehu. Hoʻohui ʻia, ua aʻo ʻia nā wahine a he leo ko lākou iho, ʻokoʻa ka wahine o Atenai a me nā mokuʻāina ʻē aʻe.

Ua ʻike anei ʻoe i kēia a pau e pili ana iā Sparta?


E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia. i hāliu aku i koi 'ia kula *

*

*